Learning to live with EMF
Illustration courtesy of the National Institute of Environmental Health SciencesSponsored by NIEHS/DOE EMF RAPID Program
In this section we will explain the three acronyms listed above and what they mean to you and everyone under your roof and your care. EMF stands for Electrical and Magnetic Fields. These fields are present and surrounding your electrical devices every day. We will spend nearly all of our time talking about the magnetic part of the acronym in conjunction with ELF or extremely low frequency in which our incoming electricity works at. When voltage is applied to a circuit like our earlier AC lamp circuit with the wall switch and the wall switch is in the off position there are no electrons moving through the wire. With the light switch off a physical gap is formed inside the switch that the electrons cannot jump over. In this instance, we wind up with having the first and last part of the acronym EMF only, or just EF. Electrons not in motion, but where voltage is present, create a field around the device called an electrical field. An electrical field by itself has very little reach away from the device causing it and is very easily block by nearly anything. However, when the wall switch is turned on allowing current to flow throughout the circuit, the second half and most dangerous part of the acronym EMF comes into play and that is MF or magnetic field. Magnetic fields that are generated around devices with ELF, or extremely low frequencies, are suspect in the development of childhood leukemia. In the United States the Center for Disease Control (CDC), along with the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, has spent decades testing and monitoring extremely low frequency magnetic fields. A specific group of individuals make very good test subjects, and those are the people working on our electrical transmission lines and within the electrical power plants and neighborhood sub stations. They are exposed to these fields for long periods of time at distances close enough for full exposure. High voltage linemen have commented that when climbing these very tall transmission poles you can feel the itching on your body long before nearing the top. The magnetic fields generated around those 100 thousand volt lines made it feel like ants were biting you all over many linemen reported. Late in 1972 or early 1973 special grounding straps were tied to the linemen’s ankles, then affixed to the ground wire on the pole, to help alleviate the biting sensation by funneling off the induced voltage their bodies were storing. For a short time it was even thought best to be brought to the hospital to receive an EKG after receiving a hefty shock while on the pole. Not a shock from the power lines as that would have killed them quite easily, but a shock from touching a piece of hardware on the pole, giving an easy path for the stored up electrons in their bodies to discharge. Although the High Voltage crews saw the stinging shocks from the induced voltage irksome, there is a much more serious side to these magnetic lines of force and that is where we are headed next.
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defined EMR (Electromagnetic Radiation) in one of their fact sheets as waves of electrical and magnetic energy radiating out from an electrical device,. The frequency of the waves is dependent on the device itself. One point worth making very clear is that the kind of radiation we are talking about is non-ionizing radiation. This means that this kind of radiation is unlike x-ray or gamma radiation and cannot alter chemical makeup in a human body. Although non-ionizing radiation is not strong enough to alter atoms, it can be strong enough to heat up human tissue. Our power line radiation, cell towers, radio waves and microwaves are all non-ionizing. For individuals wearing pacemakers, the location of EMR devices such as microwaves and even cell phone use is very important. Thankfully, the tools to detect these waves are available at a cost that is affordable.
Studies have been going on for years on the potential health hazards of EMF; mostly in the ELF range. As you will recall our high voltage transmission lines as well as all household voltages are in the extremely low field range of 60 hertz. A correlation between childhood leukemia in families living in close proximity to transmission lines surfaced many years ago. However even now, after years of testing, conclusive scientific evidence in which results can be repeated in test after test is not available. However, the scientific community does recognize that too many instances of childhood leukemia have occurred in homes within close proximity to these high tension power lines to be considered coincidence. Once again it is the magnetic radiation as opposed to electrical radiation that has the attention of the experts due to the magnetic radiations long reach from point of the magnetic field itself.
Electromagnetic Radiation is not a subject you often hear about and for good reason, it is invisible. That’s right, invisible. Just the same as the electricity that enters our homes, lights our way, cooks our food, heats our house and does our laundry. We all know that electricity is real even though it is invisible, and we all know that it can kill you if handled in an unsafe manner. Electromagnetic Radiation is a byproduct of the huge amounts of electricity needed every day and night by us the consumer. We will now take a look into RF and MW – Radiofrequency and Microwave.
Electromagnetic Radiation: Radiofrequency (RF) and Microwave (MW)
I believe it is time now to discuss another form of radiation that may have implications far exceeding our discussion on electrical magnetic fields. Radiofrequency and microwave radiation most often represented in scholarly papers as RF/MW, are at the other end of frequency ranges. Remembering that our main focus so far has been on electrical frequencies between 50 hertz used in Europe or 60 hertz used in the United States we will shift our attention to electromagnetic radiation which falls within the range of 3 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz. RF(Radio frequencies) are found in the 3khz range to the 300mhz range whereas MW (Microwave radiation) is in the 300mhz to 300ghz range. The United States of America under its Department of Labor has a very active department many of us a aware of called OSHA. OSHA, stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration and has been in the business of keeping people safe on the job has taken a leading role in RF/MW. On one of the many topics addressed by OSHA in detail are the possible biological effects of radiation from radio’s, cell phones, microwaves, and a number of other devices and practices within the workplace.
The time has come that self monitoring of our exposure to these well documented radiations is in our hands. We can no longer walk blithely around our work or house or favorite mall or movie theater relying on someone else to make us aware of possible dangers. Some of the people most at risk of these radiations are those using medical devices inside their bodies such as pace makers. Haven’t all of us seen the sign made out of a sheet of white paper using a black magic marker to warn these heart patients that something dangerous to them is just inside. Think about it, a supervisor told one of his/her underlings to get something written up quickly to place in the break room to cover themselves because they heard OSHA was going to inspect them today. Out comes the blank paper and the indelible magic marker and they write, “Caution, microwave in use”.
Even if you don’t wear a pacemaker it should make you angry and the more you think about every food kiosk in the mall you pass with no signs visible should make you angrier still. Protect yourself. Don’t rely on others to keep you safe. Carry an unobtrusive meter in your pocket or purse and let it warn you when you are too close and in harms way.
Cell phones and cordless phones are just two of the many devices that fall under radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Please don’t rely on the cell phone companies to inform you of possible dangers. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation is a part of our everyday life; all of us talk on the phone, watch television and use the microwave. How much is too much when it comes to this type of radiation and our health. Does your microwave leak? What about all of the video games hooked to our televisions with our children just feet away sometimes for hours on end? How many new parents have wondered about the thickness of their babies still thickening skull and how much easier it may be for harmful radiation to penetrate? There are precautions that you can take, you can find out what is a safe distance away from devices emitting radiation; the safety devices for your use are just a click away.
We are determined to answer all of your questions about Electromagnetic Radiation and along the way; we will make you aware of other potential problem areas in and around your house. The tools to keep you safe from these invisible fields of radiation are available. The experts are right here. Contact them and let them help you in keeping your family safe.
Radiation Toxicity Antidotes
(C) 2010 by John W. Apsley, II, MD(E), DC - www.doctorapsley.com
Here you will learn:
Ø What radioactive elements are the threat from Fukushima
Ø What the Government is not telling you
Ø What is The Petkau Effect
Ø What are the specific health risks to you & your family
Ø What the sequence to these threats will be over the next 5 years
Ø What history has taught us
Ø What misinformation are we being told?
Ø What you & your family can easily and effectively do to potentially overcome these risks
Q: What specifically is arriving in the air we breathe and unto U.S. soils and water supplies from radioactive Fall-Out emanating from Fukushima's nuclear power plant meltdown?
A: Right alongside the biologically significant levels of Iodide-131 arriving onto our shores, the extremely low levels of radioactive metals Cesium-137, Strontium-90, Tellurium-132, and Yttrium-91/90 are of primary concern over the short term. Americium-243/241, Barium-140, Plutonium-244/240/239/238 and Uranium-235/234 are of secondary concern over the long term.(H)
At points along where the molecule-size radioactive particles lodge in our bone marrow and organs - even in extremely low levels due to The Petkau Effect - there will be an immediate, sustained, minuscule, lethal tissue ionization (via lipid peroxides). Over the short-term, this especially impacts our immune system and hormonal producing pathways, insidiously injuring and even killing the very young and old.18 As time goes on and we absorb more and more trace amounts of radioactive particles from contaminated air, water and food, this is akin to undergoing millions or even billions of internal paper cuts 24/7. Unless our tissues posses adequate reserves of antioxidants and innate resistance, over decades this will resurrect itself into deranged genetic behavior (via mutated DNA), dramatically increasing the risks for developing cancer.19, 86
All exposures to radiation from all sources become cumulative in our body. There is no safe level of radiation exposure. Our body's ability to cope with it is called our innate resistance to radiation. Humans are not designed to handle even the lowest doses of radiation without it potentially overloading our innate resistance. But there are ways to boost our innate resistance that can make all the difference if we knew the full scope, types and context of our exposures.
This information should contain, per capita, the day by day, week by week, month by month, and year by year quantities of radioactive Fall-Out per county or region. In this fashion, we can determine what our daily schedule must be for including overall quantites of antioxidants added into our diet. See below under "What History Has Taught Us" and the section following pertaining to "Misinformation and Misapplied Science" to understand what we actually mean in regards to the Full Scope of our exposure.
This information should contain the specific source(s) of the radiation and make clear distinctions between any differing sources of radiation. In this case, the Fukushima Fall-Out contains exact elements, and we must now deal with each separately. So we need to know their respective toxic properties, where they tend to specifically accumulate in the body, and what specific antidotes for each work most effectively. Think of it this way - types of radiation come from different sources of radiation, which prefer to collect in specifc areas of out body, and each has specific antidotes.
Furthermore, it is critical not to confuse emissions or rays of radiation coming from medical diagnostic testing with Fall-Out particles which produce rays or radiation. For example, some official spokespersons like to compare low level daily exposures of Fall-Out from Fukushima here in the U.S. to a single dental x-ray. When in reality, both are two different types of radiation entirely. This is akin to comparing apples to oranges. For example, radioactive particles of Fall-Out once lodged into the lungs or intestinal tract, keep bombarding us with radiation 24/7 as opposed to a simple one time dental x-ray only bombards us once and for a few milliseconds.
Lastly, some types of radiation target specific tissues or glands over other areas. Picking just the right antioxidant or dietary tools that most antidotes as well as efficiently removes each specifc kind is essential (see next).
This information should contain the impact of the above upon our tissues and organs as unique individuals. We are all a bit different from one another. That is, how will our innate resistance be impacted according to the short term and long term toxicity of the above in the context of our sex, age, medical history, nutrient profile and lifestyle?
For example, radiation at low levels first harms the fatty membranes in our cells over the short term via lipid peroxidation. Certain lifestyles can exascerbate this; other lifestyles help cope with it if internal reserves of lipid antixodants abound.
But over the long term, our DNA becomes the target of embedded radioactive particles, coupled to cumulative exposures including medical X-rays. So, the longer we live, the more the threat. We we know the secrets to aging Age can mean a big difference here, with those folks mature and leading a healthy lifestyle and who use a nutritious diet better positioned to stavve off the genetic damage. For others, cancer is the key risk and regenerative techniques must be put into play as soon as possible (see the "Four Pillars" sub-tab under the "Home" page).
In other words, differing kinds of damage require different kinds of antidotes to effectively reverse radioactive damage. One group of antioxidants that protects our fatty membranes, and one group of antioxidants that protect our genetic core. Another set of antoxidants can specifically intervene at the gland or tissue involved, such as the thyroid galnd, while another set can provide for the most efficient means to escort out the specific offending radioactive particle out of our body.
Also, context is about not confusing low level exposures with high level exposures. Both have toxic impacts independent of each other. Low level radiation can be much more harmful than higher levels of radiation. Or, in some cases as with the unfortunate workers at Fukushima, high level radiation will be more harmful than their low level exposures.
Lastly, both high and low levels of exposure to radiation are cumulative. Many low level exposures over a given set of time, may be unrecognized as harmful if the cumulative amont is the only guide post used. For example, if the person's internal reserves of antioxidants is low, or their innate resistance to radiation is low, then that person will experience greater harm than a person undergoing the same expsoure who has a higher innate resistance from having higher reserves of internal antioxidants.
Tragically, our Government is not giving us the full scope, types and context of our current dilemma, only general statements which are often over-simplistic, confusing and/or out of context. In fact the very nature in which our Government has huddled around the issue of military and industrial nuclear energy makes it impossible it could ever be honest and completely forthcoming with the American public.93
We need the dirty details so we can bend fear into insight and then take appropriate, timely action through proper understanding. But for decades the apparatus put in place in our Government has been contrary to such communicatons. Most importantly, no information is being provided covering the risks to low level radiation when our tissues become embedded with tiny amounts of radioactive nanoparticles. Instead we are simply told levels are too low to be concerned about. What hogwash!85-89, 96, 98-100
These nanoparticles keep emitting their radiation constantly - 24/7, something not being discussed and leads the general public into a false sense of security. In reality, these gaps of open, honest discussions in place of shunning our responsibility to do the right thing has dire consequences within our Government. In this manner we have all been enablers fostering our Government to shift into a Nanny State mentality and modus operandi. That's why we now only receive these official, carefully crafted, mass media pronouncements that amount to hollow wordsmithing reciting unscientific constructs. In place of wordsmithing bullet points that are only meant to placate the unsuspecting and niave, we must demand from our servants in the government to cease and desist all the mumbo-jumbo. We must insist upon immediate dialogue which openly and honestly discusses The Petkau Effect. Only then can we discuss at the national level the most effective means to deal with counter-measures that may make all the difference for both the short term as well as the long term. 1-7, 20, 21, 34-40, 80-84, 104
For scientists, the Petkau Effect may be illustrated as follows:18, 22, 64
A long term exposure of extremely low radiation (i.e., one-ten millionth of a rad per minute) was found to be 100 BILLION times MORE lethal than a short term exposure to exceedingly high level radiation (i.e., 10,000 rads per minute). As it turns out, Petkau discovered that at exceedingly high radiation levels, the abundant free radicals generated in tissues tended to cancel each other out before they could do cellular damage. But at extremely low levels of radiation, these same free radicals - produced in minuscule quantities - remain unchecked. And any steady stream of unchecked free-radicals will efficiently and lethally cleave lipid cellular membranes like a hot knife slicing through butter once they overwhelm and exhaust cellular antioxidant defenses. This dramatically illustrates the non-linear aspects of dose (rads) to lethality. Most scientists specializing in the field of nuclear medicine are unaware of this fact. And most think strictly in terms of genetic damage, while the above presents its lethal affects upon cell membranes and only secondarily to the genetic core.
Q: What is the no-spin truth regarding our health risks arising from this radioactive Fall-Out?
A: For the short term: The Petkau Effect is a "must know subject" so that we can effectively combat this new threat to our health and protect our children without fear. We can do this; we just have to get ourselves properly informed to the no-spin truth, and then go to work to solve this crisis with select nutrients rich in antioxidants and special regenerative repair factors proven to be highly effective against radiation poisoning. Examples of short term health threats pertain to:18
Ø Pregnant women for premature births;
Ø Our infants for pneumonia, influenza and septicemia (i.e., up to 900% greater death rate from normal in regions
receiving the most low dose Fall-Out - see Dr. Sternglass quote below); and
Ø Our adults and senior citizens most at risk for immune deficiency crises.
A: Over the long term: Cesium-137 will concentrate in the fatty tissues, Iodine-131 in the thyroid gland, breast tissues and ovaries, Strontium-90 and Uranium-235/234 in the bone, and Uranium-235/234 and Plutonium-244 in the liver. Even to this very day, the children in Belarus are suffering from toxic overloads of Cesium-137 in their bodies due to the 1986 Chernobyl incident.83, 84 Examples of long term health threats specifically pertain to:
Ø Our children for thyroid cancer, leukemia and learning defects;85, 88, 99
Ø Our women for breast cancer (i.e., only 18% of American women live within 100 miles of nuclear power plants, yet this small group accounts for 55% of all
breast cancer cases in the U.S.);117
Ø Our general population for various forms of chronic degenerative diseases, including the crippling neurological diseases.70, 72
To avoid this, these radioactive metals need to be removed from our tissues just as fast as they arrive. So, keep reading! For further example, we must think both in terms of initial impact, as well as long term impact on mortality (death) and morbidity (injury) rates.
We have a great deal of lessons learned from the case related to the April 1986 Chernobyl incident concerning a single reactor's complete meltdown. If I were defining stages to a meltdown, I would use the following guidelines:(I), 110-113
Ø Phase I Meltdown is when hydrogen gases build up to the extent that the outer containment structure explodes or vents large amounts of steam containing
lower molecular weight radioactive isotopes, i.e., Iodide-131; Cesium-137, Strontium-90 and/or Tellurium-132.
Ø Phase II Meltdown is when the outer coatings to the fuel rods (Zircaloy) exceed 2000oF, and the inner most containment structure cracks and starts seeping
heavier elements into the environment, i.e., Barium-140, Plutonium-244/240/239/238, and/or Uranium-235/234.
Ø Phase III Meltdown is when the Zircaloy ignites causing an explosion, resulting in a global catastrophic event because the most lethal of all radioactive
isotopes, Plutonium-244/240/239/238 and/or Uranium-235/234 are jetisoned high into the atmosphere, and proceed to contaminate across the globe.
We now know that as of March 16th, Fukushima's nuclear reactor units 1, 2 & 3 have all experienced at least Phase I Meltdown, and since Plutonium has been detected in the outer environment, one or more Units is likely to have experienced a Phase II Meltdown according to the above criteria.119 Plus we have fuel rods in non-containment shielded pools of water at Units 4, 5 & 6. These are also potentially prone to release toxic radioactive isotopes or possibly explode if water levels should fall and expose these rods to open air for sufficient time periods (see National Academy of Science report: NAS3-15-05.pdf). Phase I Meltdown has occurred at least in Unit 4.
The only difference the pundits may now debate is related to the fact that these exposed reactor cores and exposed fuel rods have yet to suffer a powerful secondary Zirconium oxide (Zircaloy) explosion as Chernobyl appears to have undergone back in April of 1986.(I)
Regardless, Chernobyl's immediate aftermath as experienced here in the U.S. during the year following the incident was meticulously compiled by a top U.S. expert in the Fall of 1987. And for his efforts, he was blacklisted:(B), 41
"(Dr. Ernest J. Sternglass of the University of Pittsburgh) presented at the First Global Radiation Victims Conference in New York in September 1987, impressively conveyed the seriousness of the radiation problem. The infant mortality rate following the arrival of the Chernobyl fallout in early May of 1986 showed a 54% increase in June 1986 in the Pacific region of the United States. Washington State had the highest rate in the region with a 245% increase in deaths per thousand live births. California was next highest with a 48% increase in infant mortality as compared to June of the year before. These high rates lasted for July and August. Massachusetts led the nation in post-Chernobyl increase of infant mortality rate with an increase of 900% per thousand live births! Massachusetts also had a decline of 70% in newborns. The rate of live births also decreased throughout the country in response to the Chernobyl fallout. The US fertility rate decreased 8.3% in July and August to the lowest level ever observed in United States history."
Long Term Impact:
But the long term impact of the Chernobyl incident is even more devastating as has been recently brought to light by two independent research groups. Here in the U.S., the Radiation And Public Health Project (RPHP) organization, a not-for-profit group comprised of renown researchers in the field of nuclear-related epidemiology, has comprehensively compiled the death rates due to the 1986 Fall-Out over a decade or more.88, 100 And in 2007, The New York Academy of Sciences published a report from Russian investigators on the corresponding Eastern European holocust.99 Together, these two respective groups document that the collective U.S. and European death toll from this single event has now surpassed two (2) million and continues to grow due to the ongoing food chain contamination issue!
According to the best evidence to date pertaining to North America, over the next five (5) years this may/will lead to significantly greater risks to:(A), (B), 18, 19, 22, 85, 88
Ø Pregnant women for premature births;
Ø Our infants for pneumonia, influenza and septicemia;
Ø Our children for thyroid cancer, leukemia and learning defects;
Ø Our women for breast cancer;
Ø Our adults and senior citizens most at risk for immune deficiency crises; and
Ø Our general population for various forms of chronic degenerative diseases including autoimmune diseases as well (more on this to follow shortly).
nding Fear Into Insight
Q: What is the sequence to these risks we will face in the coming days from this radioactive Fall-Out?
A: The Fall-Out will present in THREE forms or threats to our health:
1. The first will be the immediate airborne threat over the next several weeks heading into the U.S. For comparative analysis that may pertain to fall-out coming out of a Fukushima Meltdown, John Christensen working as a staff scientist in Berkeley Lab’s Earth Sciences Division has co-authored a study describing how lead pollution travels from Asia to the U.S.. His research - based in part upon photos taken by NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor - was recently published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology (see fallout map to immediate left).42
For up to the date tracking updates, see: http://transport.nilu.no/browser/fpv_fuku?fpp=conccol_Xe-133_;region=NH
We are now concerned with the most lethal radioactive particles should they become airborne. Since Reactor Units 1, 2 & 3 all experienced hydrogen explosions prior to March 14, we know that the outer coating to the fuel rods had become overheated.112 The outer coating is composed of Zirconium oxide which when combined to steam is exothermic at all termperatures.(I) At temperatures below 2,000oF, this metal-steam combo releases vast amounts of hydrogen, which caused the initial super-pressure explosions.111 At the same time, this event also released airborne Iodide-131, Cesium-137/134, and Tellurium-132107 likely in sufficient quantities to initiate The Petkau Effect in both animals and humans for thousands of miles downwind once the particles embed into their respective host tissues.
@ normal criticality or normal flux of neutron energy < 1200oC then: 2(H2O) + Zr --> ZrO2 + 2(H2) --> releases vast amounts of hydrogen gas
However, if these fuel rods become exposed to open air because of a coolant leak, high-intensity meltdown of the core initiates. Temperatures would quickly surpass the previous ranges, and could easily set up the big one. For example, if temperatures exceed 1500oC or 2,732oF (which is possible since high-intensity meltdown temperatures - due to low coolents or low water - easily approach 5,000oF), Zircaloy becomes highly ignitable in the presence of super-heated steam and adequate oxygen.(I), 113 So, when water is finally added back into the picture, bingo...
@ prompt criticality or high-flux of neutron energy ("takeoff" threshold) > 1500oC then: 2(H2O) + Zr --> ZrO2 + 2(H2) --> super heated ZrO2 + O2 --> ingition --> explosion --> nanoparticle release of radioactive elements, most alarmingly Plutonium-240/239/238.
This would not be a small explosion like we saw on T.V., this would be much more powerful. Why?
Collectively, these fuel rods contain lots of Zircaloy which could translate into quite an explosion. Most nuclear power plants have between 20 to 25 tons of total Zircaloy on site, but because Fukushima has 6 Reactors, we may be looking at closer to 100 tons of this explosive material now at risk.110 An explosion of such magnitude, especially if it involved Fukushima Reactor Unit 3, would likely cause a global catastrophic event. This is because the fuel rods in Unit 3 are enriched with Plutonium (MOX fuel rods). If that happens, due to the extreme toxic effects from inhaling plutonium (it is perhaps one of the most toxic substances known), cancer death rates would skyrocket across much of the world, despite offical propaganda bullet points which try to minimize the concerns.120 And most unfortunately for Japan, an area the size of Pennsylvania outward from Fukushima would likely become uninhabitable for thousands of years.(L)
Such an event would give The Petkau Effect a whole new meaning. Hopefully, secondary explosions of Zircaloy itself will be prevented. To that end, the world's largest cement pumps are now underway to Fukushima (as of April 1st). Just as with Chernobyl, this may be the only way to contain or prevent the secondary explosions many times more lethal than the first salvo.118 So, what of the initial salvo of explosions?
Depending upon which "starting date" you use (the date of the first detection of radioactive cesium being airborne or when helicopter crews from the USS Ronald Reagan were first documented to have been exposed, i.e., March 14th, 2011), we can expect the West Coast of the U.S. to begin to receive at least minimal fallout within 7 to 10 days or possibly on the weekend of March 18th - 20th, 2011.
This may mean that by the 1st of April, the entire region of North America will have undergone the first round of Fall-Out exposure, even if at undetectable levels in many areas. As the upper air currents traveling in excess of 80 knots per hour repetitively cycle around the globe over and over again, the stock of radioactive airborne materials will fall out as part of normal rain fall or as simple dust particles. At these rates of speed, once the Fall-Out enters into the Jet Stream, the below graphic strongly supports an arrival of the first tier of Fall-Out into the U.S. Western shoreline for the weekend of March 18th - 20th.
In fact, it has just been confirmed as of Friday, March 18th, 2011, that low levels of radiation above normal have reached our Western shores.
More specifically, students at the University of Washington are now documenting Fall-Out in the NW. They have found radioactive Cesium-137/134, Iodide-133/132/131, and Tellurium-132 to date.
And as of March 24th, students at University of California in San Fransisco had collected rainwater containing levels of radioactive Iodide-131 18,100% above legal EPA limits.121
Next, as of March 29th, the BBC reported that radioactive Iodide-131 has been detected in the U.K., 6,000 miles due West of Japan (meaning the Jet Stream, which goes from West to East, brought this radioactivity from Japan and into the U.K. soils over a distance of 18,000 miles).92
So, as of April 1st, 2011, what is the real story? Well, it appears we have three official versions. This is further confused by the fact that we are likely dealing with not just one Reactor core which has partially breached, but perhaps the cores to Reactor Units 1, 2 & 3 in all.
First off, as of March 29th, Fukushima Reactor Unit 2 was reported to have undergone at the very least a partial meltdown - meaning containment has been lost. This event was initially measured by workers of the plant's operators - Tokyo Electric Power Company or TEPCO, as leaking radiation 10 MILLION times greater than normal.108 Leakage of Plutonium-240/239/238 would be consistent with such high amounts of detected radiation, even if present in highly limited areas in and around the plant.
Within hours, higher up TEPCO officials recanted, and stated the release was closer to 100,000 times normal radiation levels.105
Still later in the week, this figure was lowered once again to just 10,000 times over the normal radiation levels.109
And as of the afternoon on April 1st, PST, TEPCO officials now claim the latest 10,000 figure is also inaccurate.116
Then we add to this the statements that 17 workers at Fukushima were exposed to a high, but non-lethal dose of radiation, and that three of them were exposed to almost double the amount as the others, but still in the non-lethal range.(K) So, what happens next? After a delay of several days, family members start reporting to the press that their son or daughter who worked at Fukushima during this crisis are now expected to die.118
Now each of these workers are required by law to wear a dose badge (called a dosimeter), which detects total radiation exposure. Obviously there is a disconnect between the badges of these folks, and the translation of the data to the press by the official spokespersons.
This begs the question, if you are really not trying to cover-up the seriousness of the problem, why not just take more comprehensive measurements and solve the issue? Or is the entire area covering Reactor Units 1, 2 & 3 simply too toxic to put humans into harm's way? And if that is the case, as is likely, why not simply use Robotics, something the Japanese are famous for? For now (April 1st), no one is saying. Well except for this as of April 3rd - TEPCO now says it's software must have a glitch because the readings are simply too high for their in-house scientists to believe. Really? What this unmistakably leaves us with is that TEPCO and Japanese officials appear to be resorting to conjecture, denial, pitiful excuses, or worse, a cover-up conspiracy.
And some of these arguments aiding the conjecture or cover-up can be quite clever. For example, some officials are claiming that if the 10 million times above normal level was an accurate reading, then other radioactive isotopes should be present that have not yet been reported. Well, if they are not taking accurate radiation level measurements, how can they expect to conduct a thorough scan for all the possible differing radioactive isotopes?
Notwithstanding, to date, Iodide-131, Cesium-137, Tellurium-132 and Plutonium-240/239/238 have all been detected in and around the nuclear power plant with the exception of Tellurium-132, which was detected in Fall-Out at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA. The tracking for Xenon-133 (a leading indicator for tracking Fall-Out patterns) would help to indicate what the likely track is for the lighter radioactive elements as just listed (see below-right).106, 107
The presence of Plutonium-240/239/238 presents some real issues, most importantly, what is its source? The best guess at present is that the highly toxic MOX fuel rods found exclusively in Reactor Unit 3, which contain relatively high levels of Plutonium,114 have suffered at least partial meltdown, and this is the source of the Plutonium in and around Fukushima.
Finally, although the heavier radioactive nuclei are less prone to going airborne without an explosion, for the extremely small nanoparticles it is not inconceivable for radioactive nuclei like Americium-243/242/241, Plutonium-244/240/239/238 and Uranium-235/234 to get airborne and reach the Western shores of the U.S. as early as April 5th or 6th in trace amounts. So, we had better get prepared NOW.90, 91
Furthermore, you can now join a Nationwide effort to track this Fall-Out on an amateur basis. See: http://www.radiationnetwork.com/
2. The next threat will be when it enters into our water supply and food chain over the many weeks and perhaps months ahead, which will be most likely related to Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 - both with half lives of approximately 30 years.
3. The last threat stems from the extremely low levels of radiation which become ever present due to radioactive materials burrowing into our tissues. This will be by far the more deadly and insidious form of radiation poisoning to those living in North America, and is properly called The Petkau Effect. The Petkau Effect is in many ways identical to what happens when underground fires ignite and cannot be extinguished. Indeed, there are locations around the world where abandoned coal mines went ablaze and simply cannot be put out. Some of these have smoldered slowly out of control for 30 years or more. The same may occur within our very own bodies when radioactive Iodide-131, Cesium-137, Strontium-90 and Tellurium-132 enter our lungs as we breathe or in through our digestive tract when we eat or drink contaminated foods or water.(A), 22
In other words, unless you are a worker at a damaged nuclear power plant, or live within a few miles of Fukushima, for now you don't need to worry about acute spikes in radiation which are fleeting, since few will ever experience such an event.(K) You should be concerned about tiny scattered particles that settle into our tissues undetected, and not worry about amounts sufficient to trigger Geiger Counter alarms going off at airport check stations. The tiny amounts of exposure which are more likely to occur give off constant ionizing radiation that burns us at the molecular level over many years before causing a diagnosable issue.19
Also, the cloth-paper masks that many people use around their faces are useless to protect from these tiny particles. Sorry folks! You would need advanced charcoal filters that are quite bulky and more expensive to achieve any meaningful "up-front" protection for your lungs. Therefore, be forewarned that any official positions claiming that, "only low levels of radiation have been detected and therefore pose no real health threat to the American public," are suspect and should be viewed as phraseology more properly akin to either misinformation or outright propaganda.(B), 18
For example, at least one nuclear physicist appearing on a cable news channel on March 18th has already reported that the amount of radiation that has landed on U.S. soil would expose those proximal to it to "about the same amount of radiation we receive when we get a single dental X-ray." Well, excuse me, but once we ingest these particles, they continuously bombard us with radiation for days, weeks, months and even years before being eliminated. This is totally unlike that of a single dental X-ray which only exposes us to a one time milliseconds of exposure. Obviously this scientist has not yet taken the time to review The Petkau Effect.
No doubt many scientists will continue to compare apples to oranges by comparing diagnostic X-ray exposures to trace particles entering into our food chain and then our bodies from Fukushima Fall-Out. Or worse, is to hear our officials make statements to the effect that, "Only low levels of radiation have been detected, and these are well within government 'permissible' standards which poses no risk to the general public." All these comparisons or standards are the hallmark of unscientific constructs, since the government readily admits there is no such thing as safe levels of radiation.66 Most importantly, to my knowledge no one has compared The Petkau Effect, rad for rad, against extremely short diagnostic X-ray exposures in side by side tissue or animal studies. As clearly stated above, lethality is not linear in terms of dose of rads when The Petkau Effect is in play.
Putting The Petkau Effect aside for the moment, all additional amounts of radiation compound the already harmful levels in the environment. Since: (A) the start of the first above ground nuclear bomb testing (1950's & 60's), and then later from (B) the contributions of secret nuclear reactor radioactive releases and accidents (1970's up to the present day), collectively their radioactive Fall-Out isotopes influence our environment and food chain - via their half-life - for (C) decades (i.e., Cesium-137, Strontium-90, Tellurium-132 and Yttrium-91/90), and then furthermore for (D) hundreds and even tens of thousands of years (i.e., Americium-243/241, Plutonium-244 and Uranium-235/234).(H), 66
So now we clearly see and understand:
(A) What the current threats are,
(B) How to track them, and
(C) For over what duration must we stay focused on them, enabling us to approach them one by one with...
(D) Real, permanent solutions.
Q: What has history already taught us that is essential for us to know to superimposed upon the above understandings?
A: History has taught us to "hope for the best," but "plan for the worst" and to educate oneself better than the politicians or their official scientific spokespersons!
Since WWII, over 555,000 TRILLION picocuries of radiation have been released into the Earth's biosphere much of it with a highly toxic half life exceeding tens of thousands of years.(H), 18 Thanks to this release of radiation into the global food chain, plus modern day exposures from all sources, the average human being contains 250,000 picocuries of radiation on any given day. And we are constantly adding in more. For example, an average glass of beer contains 390 picocuries.114
A picocurie is simply a specific amount or unit of radiation coming off any source that is radioactive. When radiation enters into a life form like human beings, it impacts the biology of that life form. Here in the U.S., the biological impact of picocuries upon our tissues is also given in specific amounts or units called rems.
Normal background radiation is said to be 0.24 rems per year. Yet, the average U.S. citizen from many man-made as well as natural sources receives 0.36 rems of radiation annually. For example, just one CAT Scan can add 0.69 rems into our tissue at one time. So, we are already receiving above normal background radiation levels before we become exposed to further accidents like Fukushima. Therefore, the next time any pundit says you are just going to receive new amounts of radiation below the normal background levels, realize this will add on top of your body's current radiation burden. Now here is the kicker. There is no "safe" level of radiation.66 Any new amounts added into our systems that invoke The Petkau Effect is playing Russian Roulette. Only by fortifying our innate resistance do we have the opportunity to check or neutralize this continuous life long threat.
When one considers the emerging evidence linking so many autoimmune diseases to environmental toxic exposures (including within war zones69) and UV radiation, this helps to explain the dramatic rise, for example, not only of Cancer, but also Hashimoto's Disease,51 Hypothyroidism Type 2, Diabetes Type 2,50 Colitis, Crohn's Disease, Lupus, Scleroderma, ALS,72, 73 MS,52 R.A., Osteoporosis, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Universal Allergic Reactors, Alzheimer's Disease, infertility, Autism, Low Birth Weight, the rise in Birth Defects, Infant Failure to Thrive Syndromes (i.e., SIDS), etc...53, 54 With the exception of radon, specific links to endemics of autoimmune diseases and environmental regions of radioactivity are not being investigated or reported out of our government agencies, nor their official designated scientific agencies, which suggests a policy of cover-up.(B) Only emerging independent studies performed by not-for-profit dedicated scientists track these associations with cancer in humans which may arise from chronic, low level radiation poisoning.(B), (F) The under reporting of untoward effects stemming out of the Chernobyl incident is a classic example.
For example, attempts have been made to grossly underestimate the death rate from the Chernobyl incident, down to just 31 individuals!97 So, let's get this straight... U.S. cancer rates - into the tens of thousands - are much higher within a 100 mile radius of fully operational, intact, nuclear power plants as opposed to areas free from nuclear power plants, and yet a complete meltdown with an explosion occurring at a Russian nuclear power plant caused only 31 deaths??? See graph to immediate right.117 Russians must really be super human indeed. (In real truth, according to comprehensive research published by The New York Academy of Sciences in 2007, that low-ball figure was raised to 985,000 deaths attributable to the Chernobyl incident, which included the greater regions affected in the Ukraine, Belarus and pertaining Russian territories.)98, 99
Now like no other time in human history, we must consume daily doses of select antioxidants and the building blocks to our internal antioxidant enzymes just to keep ahead of this destructive radioactive body burden. In this manner we may keep our innate resistance at optimal functional levels.
See: www.radiation.org for further information.
Q: What other misinformation or misapplied science is being reported by the main stream pundits?
A: Many scientists enlisted as expert spokespersons in the mass media are either intentionally or unintentionally confusing similar scientific phenomena as identical scientific phenomena.
Currently there are a group of esteemed physicists who are suggesting that low levels of radiation from multiple sources, can be beneficial. They are citing some very compelling evidence which suggests that cancer rates can actually go down, not up, with long term, low level exposures to toxic radioactive nuclei such as Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137. They also link this kind of radiation to the principles of "hormesis" something of which Eclectic Physicians are quite familiar with. And finally, they cite mineral rich hot springs which are known to emit low level radiation from a naturally occurring radioisotope called radon.30 In fact it is true that the hot springs in Attica, Lesvos and Ikaria Greece, and in the Misasa Hot Springs District of Japan are renown for spontaneous healings arising from proper use of these therapeutic waters. These springs typically present short term exposures to folks, and with levels of radon that have been naturally encountered by human beings for millennia. However, harmful sequelae appear to be associated with (A) longer exposure periods coupled to (B) higher levels of mixed radioactive contaminants (i.e., Uranium-244 plus radon), a sign of possible cumulative deleterious effects.56. 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
This illustrates what happens when nuclear physicists are looking in the wrong direction, even if for the right reason. Chernobyl and Fukushima are not identical in any way to natural radon exposures found in therapeutic hot springs. But their respective Fall-Out could compound the effects of the natural radon emissions in unknown ways. So, we must avoid forming premature conclusions which are not applicable to the actual, full scale context of this latest incident. Therefore in my book, there is no such thing as safe, low level exposures to "man-made" sources of radiation.(F), 55, 66
Indeed, to date, I am unaware of any positive health benefits attributable to the Chernobyl incident or exposures to depleted uranium (DU) such as happened in the U.S. Gulf-Wars.67, 68, 69, 70, 71 If any do exist, please send me the reports. I am aware of at least one report of how wild animals in and around Chernobyl have made a comeback, but I find it uncompelling. For example, after Reindeer herds which inhabited Chernobyl's fall-out zones ate contaminated lichen, they all were exterminated because of their exceedingly high tissue levels of Cesium-137, and this is still a serious problem for the children in the region today.63, 82, 83, 84
Additionally, radiation has a way of hiding its inherent lethality over many years for those wishing to rush through their studies. For example as just previously mentioned, careful collection of epidemiological evidence over nearly two decades paints a much clearer and dier end-result than those who rushed to judgment. A comprehenisve study published 21 years after the Chernobyl incident, which carefully applied statistical analysis to regions most laden with Fall-Out, showed that not 31 deaths, but in reality 985,000 deaths resulted from this single catastrophe.99
Statisticians can omit or disqualify relating data points just as easily as they can include it. It depends upon what vested interests are in play,62 and/or the comprehensiveness of the statistician(s).(B), (F), 18
1. We should have first been focused on identifying disease associations other than cancer that arise out of
radiation Fall-Out, so these could be tracked over time, STARTING AT THE CELL and BELOW CELL LEVEL
2. Then we should have been looking into populations which have lived within 100 miles of nuclear power
plants for several decades and their risk assessments for these associated radiation diseases, including
autoimmune disorders and all forms of cancer.
3. Then we could have been using these two subsets to focus in more accurately on long term health trends
of folks who were initially exposed to radioactive Fall-Out and their subsequent health experiences including
those of their children.88 This is the basis to Hypothyroidism Type 2, and I suspect other escalating glandular
and immune disorders, since insults upon the mitochondrial mechanisms appear to transfer down to offspring.(G)
As Abraham Lincoln admonished us, "You can fool some of the People some of the time, but not all of the People, all of the time."
Accounting for phenomena that suggests humans or animals actually benefit from select kinds of radiation exposure including radioactive Fall-Out.
These official government spokespersons and nuclear physicists are reminded about the principles established by the Father of modern cell physiology, Claude Bernard:47
Bending Insight Into Science We Can Trust
So how does Strict Determinism impact our current situation? Well, it is the principle which may very well save us. It is all about what principles or reference points we focus on to use as a directional heading & road map to get us out of this mess. This will determine what we must do.
But beyond that, without the proper reference points that include associated risks and adequate time periods to properly assimilate such differing kinds of data, confusion will prevail when trying to gauge radiation morbidity and mortality statistics from the latest incident at Fukushima. This will determine how long we must take action to protect ourselves.
For good reason, many of us feel we cannot trust those who we sent to represent us in our government farther than we can throw a dollar bill. This is because crony capitalism is hard at work, putting vested interests ahead of We, the People and common sense. When it comes to reporting to us the full facts relating to radiation releases and their impact upon our health, history tells us we are being hihgly manipulated, even after President Clinton led the first effort to expose the truth in 1997 (see Department of Energy's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Report in endnote 93 below, plus endnotes 94-96). This is because it has been the official Federal policy to withhold the truth about radiation exposures to the U.S. public since the 1950's for both military as well as private sector vested interests. So, we must realize WE are the government, not the paper pushers or vested interests or puppet masters who have taken up positions all throughout our government to insure we are kept from the full truth. Don't get mad about all this, just get educated. In the end, it is up to us to protect ourselves, our family, our neighbors and our country.93, 94, 95, 96
In summary, what are the proper reference points that will tell us here and now if low levels of any kind of radiation are potentially beneficial or harmful to human tissues? These reference points derive from those discovered by Abram Petkau, Gilbert N. Ling, and two other experts in BioEnergetics, relating to EIGHT factors:31, 32, 33
Ø Does the radiation level overwhelm the lipid antioxidant defenses of the host's tissues (e.g., are toxic levels of malondialdehyde or MDA produced and/or glutathione reserves depleted?). Or do the tissues recover and demonstrate healthy cell or tissue regeneration alongside optimal levels of functional lipid antioxidants (NAC, Glutathione, CoQ10(H), Vitamin E, Omega 3 oils, etc...)?
Ø Does the radiation disrupt or improve aerobic metabolism of the cell or tissue or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal aerobic metabolism?
Ø Does the radiation improve the pH profile of the external and internal milieu of the cell or tissue or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal pH?
Ø Does the radiation improve the structured water (polarized multilayers of water or PM water) within the cell or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which display optimal PM water?
Ø Does the radiation improve or harm the normal spectrum of mineral elements in the cell and their proper locations or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal mineral reserves?
Ø Does the radiation improve or harm the special proline-rich-peptides within cells that are the scaffolding to the PM water in the cell or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal proline-rich-peptide reserves?
Ø Is the 'Phase Angle' of the body improved by the radiation exposure or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal Phase Angle?
Ø And finally, is the negative millivolts of the cell and tissues improved from the radiation exposure or lead to healthy cell or tissue regeneration which displays optimal millivolts?
Physicists who doubt that man-made, low level radiation falling within so-called: (A) "normal background radiation levels" or (B) "permissible radiation levels" causes massive harm would serve the general public very well by addressing the above questions. Until they do, they stand on inadequately circumspect data points.83-89
Eclectic physicians often specialize in BioEnergetics, the Fourth Pillar to The Regeneration Effect. And what these experts will tell you is that select low levels of radiation that disrupt cell membranes will trigger attempts in tissues to regenerate the damage, which is termed autophagy.49 Just enough autophagy with just enough antioxidants and reserves of their respective substrates (building blocks) and other essential factors like oxygen and you are ØØØ "In like Flint." But too much autophagy with too little antioxidants or when coupled to conditions of hypoxia (low oxygen levels), and you start generating vast numbers of premature cellular deaths, and over the longer term cancer or devastating autoimmune disease. Most folks over 50 have under saturated tissue levels of oxygen, so this is something we need to keep in mind.43 Additionally, other stores of environmental toxins or unhelpful lifestyles which include the standard American diet and smoking, will ensure low level radiation exposure can only increase risks to chronic degenerative diseases down the road. Perhaps most importantly, radioactive iodide may easily disrupt thyroid function permanently. With chronic lower thyroid hormone production, the risk to many chronic degenerative diseases dramatically goes up. Unfortunately, conventional medicine has failed to date to adequately appraise low thyroid conditions, so this only compounds inadequacies in statistical analysis.(G)
Therefore, only looking at cancer death rates without looking into the other diseases that can substitute in cancer's place, is misleading to say the least when examining radiation hormesis.
As an Eclectic Physician, my foremost concern about my own knowledge base is in regards to not knowing what I don't know about. It's one thing to know you don't know about a critical issue, but it is an entirely different matter when you don't know that you don't know about a critical issue. This is my blind spot, and it serves me well to chip away at my blind spots by practicing the Eclectic method as diligently as possible. The eclectic method is one of developing insight to see reality as it truly is. Insight is by definition the ability 'to view or determine a truth' about a critical issue from as many points of view at once, and that requires a team of trustworthy experts using the same method who remain in communication with each other. That surpasses mere reductionism (i.e., conventional sciences' current methodology), and extends into gaining clinical results where conventional thinking and practices simply fall short or fail, or are bound to fail by not preventing future catastrophic health consequences, such as what is befalling us now with this incident at Fukushima. That's who we are at the ICCTTM.
This being stated, how we have put this altogether (that is, what is actually occurring at the cellular level and why some animals in certain situations of radiation exposure may thrive while others die), is related to five things which we can use to overcome the trace amounts of radioactive fall-out from Fukushima. To us it all boils down to:
(A) The antioxidant capacity and potential (substrate reserves) of tissues,
(B) The steady or interrupted streams of free-radical formation (length of exposure),
(C) The capacity of the host to repair (which includes all eight factors listed above in bold),
(D) The prior cumulative stresses already present in the host, and
(E) Only then about radioactive dosage levels and toxic particle elimination.
Bending Trustworthy Science Into Solutions We May Implement Now
Q: What can I do now to protect myself from nuclear fall-out arriving from the meltdown of Japan's nuclear power plants?
A: The good news is that we can protect ourselves now. And furthermore, we may actually be able to use this incident to our advantage to induce unscheduled healing, if we keep on top of it.
What we must all do now is to fortify our internal cellular milieu and bring online our very own Regeneration Effect within. This turns the table in regards to Claude Bernard's principle of Strict Determinism, and enables us to achieve "what we damn well please" - that is - a favorable outcome. Specifically, we may still enjoy life free from the threat of low level radiation exposures, if we know exactly what to do. So let's begin...
SHORT TERM ANTIDOTES:
1. N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) is the most powerful short term quencher of ionizing radiation. It is a nutrient, a simple amino acid from protein. For adults (weighing above 150lbs) , it may be taken in dosages of 500mg to 600mg daily for protection from toxic metals and other poisons. For younger adults weighing 100lbs to 149lbs, 400mg to 500mg daily affords adequate protection in most situations. In children weighing less than 100lbs, but above 50lbs, 200mg daily is a suitable dose. For infants, toddlers or children weighing less than 50lbs, 50mg to 100mg daily may be used in juice, as long as no sensitivity to NAC arises (i.e., light skin rashes). In this manner, NAC may be used daily on an indefinite basis, as it is a harmless amino acid our bodies will use to establish antioxidant defenses and aid the immune system. It is also an adequate remover (i.e., chelator - from the Greek which means that which "grabs onto or claws into") of toxic metals from the body, such as radioactive cobalt and directly and indirectly uranium.44, 45, 46 Uranium is quite stubborn about exiting without a fight and could require baking soda to speed things up - see references at very end of page - plus melatonin.23 Liver protection from fall-out radioisotopes like uranium, plutonium, etc... is nicely accomplished via combining NAC + Sea Vegetables (see next) + Melatonin + Selenium + small amounts of baking soda (see number 7 below for all advisories). Lastly - rarely some adults are sensitive to NAC, so be aware of special advisories regarding its long term use. In those cases, use high-quality Whey products.6, 7
2. Iodide is also a first line of defense mineral supplement, since it can out-compete radioactive iodide from entering into our bodies.11 Kelp and other seaweeds are also excellent chelators of toxic metals from the body, especially if high fiber intake is also being incorporated into the diet.9, 10, 83, 84
Despite misinformation to the contrary, if you have no known allergy to shellfish or iodide, rationale supplementation with iodide can be a good thing. For average size adult women, daily Thyroid needs amount to 50mcg alone, while breast tissues, ovaries and other tissues collectively require up to 3000mcg daily. For men, their intake should be at least 1,000mcg daily, unless they are sensitive to the mineral.74, 75, 76 Eclectic physicians may use up to ten times or more of the female dose to treat chronic fatigue and advanced Fibromyalgia with great success,77 as well as to detoxify out of the system the toxic halides bromide, chloride and fluoride.78
For example, individual tablets of Kelp, Irish Moss or Dulse typically contain on average 200mcg of iodine. So, 5 tablets taken at once may equal 1,000mcg of iodine. If 5 tablets are taken at each meal, then the daily dose of iodine from these sources alone would approach 3,000mcg daily. However as referenced above, building up slowly to this level is essential, as iodine tends to rinse out toxic body burdens of toxic fluoride, bromide and chlorine if present. Therefore, when high levels of iodine are taken too quickly without building up to optimal levels, these toxic elements may exit en mass too quickly causing skin rashes, minor hair loss, or very rarely even asthmatic reactions. Eclectic physicians will neutralize this sensitivity with up to 3,000mg daily of Vitamin C.79 But by simply discontinuing the supplement for several days, skin or hair issues should quickly clear up on their own. But if you do experience anything more dramatic, check in with your doctor right away. So always increase slowly and according to tolerance to avoid getting into this kind of situation to begin with. Remember, iodine is an essential nutrient our bodies must have every day to make adequate levels of essential hormones.
If sensitivities to iodine do surface, and then clear after discontinuing, and you want to resume taking iodine supplements, check in with your doctor and see if he or she will allow you to begin taking 3,000mg of Vitamin C daily, and then give you the go-ahead to start with very small iodine of iodine daily (1/4 tablet daily). Slowly work up to a maximum of 1 tablet daily, and report to your doctor if your tolerance to iodine at this level of intake is secure. Gradually over time, most folks can up their dosage in this manner, although more slowly than other people. Several months down the road, one initially sensitive may find themselves able to take 400mcg to 1,000mcg daily if patience rules the process. In the rare event any intake of iodide causes resumption of symptoms, including minor hair loss, substitute Chlorella or Spirulina below.
3. Chlorella (and other blue green algae) is a superior protector and chelator of radioactive metals from the body and contains no less than 20 superior neutralizers to radioactive poisons. 5 per meal (250mg each or 1250mg per meal) is a great dose for adults, 3 per meal for young adults and children, and 1 per meal for the very young. Make sure the Chlorella brand you buy has the outer cell wall "cracked" for best absorption. More may be taken, but it is suggested to never exceed 40 tablets daily for adults. Spirulina is a very acceptable cheaper alternative, although the taste is more objectionable for children.3, 4, 29
4. High quality bone meal (rich in Calcium & Strontium Hydroxyapatite) will also protect against radioactive strontium poisoning and penetration of uranium into bone. 3 per meal as labeled is suggested for adults, young adults and children, and 1-2 per meal for the very young.12
5. Natural Vitamin E Complex - To stop cell membrane destruction. 800iu per day is an excellent dose for average adults, and 400iu per day for young adults and children. Toddlers and infants may be given 100iu per day in juice. (Side Note: Krill Oil, CoQ10(H) and Melatonin are more powerful than Vit. E, but also more expensive. See below...)
6. Consuming High fiber and seaweed dishes on a regular basis must be used to maximize the best effects of the above tools. These will help insure removal (chelation) of toxic radioactive metals from the body.
7. Baking soda - Should be taken only on rare occasions, that is, only if exposures to uranium or plutonium can be confirmed, even in trace amounts, for your area. Baking soda is an efficient means to remove these metals quickly (especially uranium). There are several medical conditions which contradict taking baking soda, so be sure you have doctor's clearance before consuming baking soda. Taking baking soda once weekly should pose no health threat if no other medical conditions are present which require restriction of sodium intake. For adults with no medical contraindications, and who have good reason to believe they have been exposed to traces of radioactive fall-out, especially uranium, taking 1 teaspoon of baking soda in 1 cup water or juice up to seven (7) times daily on an empty stomach - on one day out of every seven days - may be warranted. If you have a day of fasting each week, or one of light eating, this would be the perfect day to perform this procedure; but again, only if it has been confirmed you were likely exposed to extremely low levels of the radioactive heavy metals such as uranium. Please see the long list of abstracts regarding baking soda as an effective chelator of radioactive elements at the very end of this document).14, 15
LONG TERM ANTIDOTES (for maintenance):
Professional Guidelines: In the unlikely event of an emergency concerning acute radiation poisoning, baking soda may be used when directly exposed to high levels of radioactive isotopes (Americium-243/242/241, Barium-140, Cesium-137, Plutonium-244/239/238, Strontium-90/89, Tellurium-132, Uranium-235/234, Yttrium-91/90, etc...):
Under a doctor's supervision, baking soda coupled to the above are tools of choice to remove these toxic metals from the body quickly.
For adults, up to 7 teaspoons of baking soda daily in divided dosages on an empty stomach may be used short-term (over 6 consecutive days) to accomplish significant decontamination, with route & rate of administration carefully considered by the physician. Another acceptable dosage schedule is to perform the above every other day for two weeks on, then resting for two weeks off of the baking soda schedule.
Now, couple this protocol to the lipid membrane protocol listed below with added probiotic supplementation and as appropriate use Aloe, Noni juice and SAW with a strict diet of no refined carbohydrates, and many of the most serious cases may gain lasting relief.7, 12, 14, 15, 21, 23, 25
Where run-a-way inflammation has taken hold, quadruple NAC intake & follow the natural aspirin (80mg/day), omega 3 oils (3gm/Day or fish oils, or 1gm/day of Krill oil) & GLA (from borage oil - 2gm/day) with cherry concentrate, curcumin (up to 2gm/day) and boswellia (1gm/day), plus natural anti-histamines such as quercetin (250mg three times daily). See: http://doctorapsley.com/AspirinandSynergistsforCancer.aspx.
In the extremely unlikely event of more grave situations, intravenous administration of 5% baking soda (in 500cc), glutathione (2gm), reduced CoQ10 (300mg), sodium ascorbate (10gm), Omega 3 oils (2gm), NAC (5gm) and elemental selenium (1mg) as sodium selenite can be administered daily over the course of a week or two, with good success where patient is incapable of ingesting oral supplements.
Additionally, two herbal medicines which are very potent antidotes to high radiation exposure are: high-quality Aloe vera juice 20 (for any radiation burns, internal or external), and Noni juice 13 (Morinda citrifolia). Also, eliminate all refined sugar from the diet.
Very importantly, bowel movements are key to removing offending radioactive isotopes from the body and should utilize pectin or alginate or chitin laden fiber products, and as possible, a series of colonics utilizing 3% baking soda.
If skin exposure has been confirmed, then infrared saunas using niacin and intense sweats are key, so long as the sweat can be collected on towels during the twice daily 30 minute treatments which are properly disposed of.
Lastly, emerging evidence suggests that one species of structured water (Fullerene-C60) may be able to protect normal cells from harmful effects of radiation therapy while simultaneously enhancing results of radiation therapy.8 More studies are needed to confirm this theory.
Examples of Protection Schedules According to Body Weight & Budgetary Allowances
Q: What is the one, least expensive method to protect oneself from radioactive Fall-Out?
A: Eating an abundance of sea vegetables (all edible seaweeds) at each meal (chewed well), while eliminating all refined foods, especially sugar.9,10, 81 Sea vegetables are not only rich in iodine and other trace elements, but also in chlorophyll, alginate and selenium, substances very efficient at grabbing onto toxic metals and removing them from the body. Chlorophyll also aids in repair to damaged tissues. The key is liberating the goodies from sea vegetables, and cooking methods and blenders are helpful in this regard. Alternatively, Kelp or Irish Moss (also known as Bladderwart) or Dulse tablets can substitute for ingesting sea vegetables.
[SPECIAL NOTE # I: Most individual tablets of (1) Kelp, (2) Irish Moss or (3) Dulse - regardless of brand - contain 200mcg of iodine, plus or minus 50mcg. Each single tablet provides the minimal unit of which is an acceptable starting dosage of intake for all, providing no sensitivity to iodine is present. After all, these are simply tablets of sea vegetables, which have been consumed by human beings for millennia].
[SPECIAL NOTE # II: When sensitivity to iodine is an issue, and Vitamin C does not calm the sensitivity,79 substitute the more expensive (4) green-algae Chlorella (cell-wall cracked) or the lesser expensive (5) blue-green algae Spirulina to safely intervene against radioactive Fall-Out].34, 35, 36, 37
Q: What are the top two tools to protect oneself from initial stages of radioactive Fall-Out?
A: NAC & Kelp (must not be allergic to shellfish or iodine. If allergic, switch off of Kelp and onto Chlorella or Spirulina):
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg to 600mg NAC at breakfast, and 5 Kelp tablets with each meal.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 300mg to 500mg NAC at breakfast, and 3 tablets of Kelp with each meal.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 100mg to 250mg NAC at breakfast, and 1 tablet of Kelp with each meal sprinkled into juice.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, and 1 tablet Kelp daily sprinkled into juice.
Q: What are the top two least expensive tools to protect oneself from initial stages of radioactive Fall-Out?
A: Kelp & Spirulina (plus high fiber foods such as raw apples, pears, grapes, cherries, plums, blue berries, etc...).80, 81
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 5 tablets of Kelp & 5 tablets Spirulina with each meal.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 tablets Spirulina with each meal.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella(E) with each meal sprinkled into juice.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily sprinkled into juice.
Q: What are the top three tools to protect oneself from initial stages of radioactive Fall-Out?
A: NAC, Kelp and Chlorella.
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg to 600mg NAC at breakfast, 5 Kelp tablets & 5 Chlorella tablets with each meal.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 300mg to 500mg NAC at breakfast, 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 Chlorella tablets with each meal.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 100mg to 200mg NAC at breakfast, 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet of Chlorella with each meal sprinkled into juice.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily sprinkled into juice.
Q: What are the top four tools to protect oneself from initial stages of radioactive Fall-Out?
A: NAC, Kelp, Chlorella and Krill Oil.
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg to 600mg NAC at breakfast, 5 Kelp tablets & 5 Chlorella tablets with each meal + 1 cap Krill Oil.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 300mg to 500mg NAC at breakfast, 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 Chlorella tablets with each meal + 1 cap Krill Oil.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 100mg to 250mg NAC at breakfast, 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet of Chlorella with each meal crushed & sprinkled into juice + 1 cap Krill oil squeezed & blended into milk or juice.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily crushed & sprinkled into juice + 1 cap Krill Oil squeezed & blended into milk or juice.
Q: If the lipid membranes are the core issue to The Petkau Effect, what are the best tools to prevent membrane damage during initial stages of contamination?
A: Many physicians would chose R-alpha lipoic acid (thioctic acid) as their first choice since it will powerfully retard lipid membrane ionization. But unfortunately, lipoic acid tends to bind metals and deposit them into the nucleus of cells (as opposed to removing them from the body).24, 26 Therefore, it is best to use Krill oil, or 'reduced' co-enzyme Q10 [CoQ10(H)], or Natural Vitamin E(D) and Melatonin to accomplish a better end result. Krill oil, CoQ10(H) and Vitamin E would neutralize the ionizing effects onsite, while Melatonin would also seek to safely remove the offending radioactive particle from the body (via the bile route of elimination provided there is adequate fiber).7, 21, 23, 25 In order of strength, Krill Oil reigns supreme, then CoQ10(H), then Melatonin, and finally Vitamin E. But for the kinds of low dose exposures North America is likely to receive, natural Vitamin E complex should provide adequate protection if taken ahead of exposures. Melatonin is a superior multitasking nutrient and so serves purposes beyond the others. Therefore, this is a prudent tool to include if budget allows. In summary, budget prudently for the suggested schedules below, and if necessary, eliminate Krill oil in favor of Vitamin E, eliminate NAC in favor of extra Chlorella, and substitute Spirulina over Chlorella to save money as necessary.
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 500mg to 600mg NAC + 800iu Natural Vit. E at breakfast + 1 cap Krill oil; 5 Kelp tablets, 5 Chlorella tablets with each meal; and 10mg Melatonin at bedtime.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 300mg to 500mg NAC + 400iu Natural Vit. E at breakfast + 1 cap Krill oil; 3 tablets of Kelp & 3 Chlorella tablets with each meal, and 3mg Melatonin at bedtime.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 100mg to 250mg NAC + 200iu Natural Vit. E at breakfast + 1 cap Krill oil squeezed & mixed into milk or juice; 1 tablet of Kelp & 1 tablet of Chlorella with each meal; and 1mg Melatonin at bedtime.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 100iu Natural Vit. E, 1 cap Krill Oil squeezed & mixed into milk or juice, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella daily sprinkled into juice; and 500mcg chewable Melatonin at bedtime.
Q: In view of the long term consequences from nuclear power plant meltdown, what maintenance schedules should be incorporated to best help us all prevent cancer decades down the road?
A: Kelp, Spirulina, Natural Vitamins C & E,(D) high-quality Bone Meal, high-end probiotics (acidophilus), and Melatonin + selenium along with my Getting Started tab above for complete menu planning.
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 400iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics at breakfast; 2 Kelp tablets, 3 Spirulina tablets & 2 Bone Meal tablets with each meal; and 10mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be ingested daily.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 400iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics at breakfast; 2 tablets of Kelp, 2 Spirulina tablets & 2 Bone meal tablets with each meal, and 3mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be ingested daily.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 200iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics at breakfast; 1 tablet of Kelp, 1 tablet of Chlorella and one Bone Meal with each meal (all sprinkled into juice as appropriate); and 1mg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 100mcg - 200mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be consumed daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 100iu Natural Vit. E, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics plus 2 Bone Meal capsules opened & sprinkled into juice daily; and 500mcg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 50mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Lastly, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is attempted to be given daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
Best Long Term Protocol: I (Dr. Apsley) have an extended family, with children ranging in ages from 34 down to 11, and three grandkids ages 4 & 2 years of age. My recommended maintenance schedules to my family are provided below:
Ø Average adults (weighing +150lbs): 250mg to 300mg NAC + 400iu Natural Vitamin E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics & 3 capsules Krill Oil at breakfast; 2 Kelp tablets, 3 Chlorella tablets & 2 Bone Meal tablets with each meal; and 10mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one to three effervescent Vitamin C drinks are to be ingested daily.
Ø Young adults and larger children (weighing 100lbs - 149lbs): 250mg to 300mg NAC + 400iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics & 2 caps Krill Oil at breakfast; 2 tablets of Kelp, 2 Chlorella tablets & 2 Bone meal tablets with each meal, and 3mg Melatonin at bedtime with 400mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be ingested daily.
Ø For smaller children (weighing 50lbs - 99lbs): 100mg NAC + 200iu Natural Vit. E plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics & 1 cap Krill Oil at breakfast; 1 tablet of Kelp, 1 tablet of Chlorella and one Bone Meal with each meal (all sprinkled into juice as appropriate); and 1mg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 100mcg - 200mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Also, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is to be consumed daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
Ø For the very young (weighing less than 50lbs): 50mg to 100mg NAC, 100iu Natural Vit. E, 1 tablet Kelp & 1 tablet Chlorella plus 1 capsule high potency Probiotics plus 2 Bone Meal capsules opened & sprinkled into juice daily; and 500mcg chewable Melatonin at bedtime with 50mcg selenium from selenomethionate. Lastly, one effervescent Vitamin C drink is attempted to be given daily. Chewable Vitamin C tablets may be substituted IF the brand is LOW in sugar.
Q: If I am pregnant or am a nursing mother, what can I do to antidote my exposures to radiation without harming my baby?
A: This is a great subject. If you have good reason to believe you are being exposed to traces of nuclear fall-out, going very slowly but 'preemptively' is the key. Or proceed according to your doctor's instructions. Never take baking soda if pregnant or nursing, unless instructed to do so by your physician. The below presumes you are already taking a HIGH POTENCY doctor approved prenatal or nursing multivitamin/multimineral supplement. Drink lots of SAW & eat lots of fiber!!! And do not use microwave ovens please! See my Getting Started tab above.
Ø Starting Schedule for Pregnant and Nursing Mothers: 1 tablet of Chlorella (or 1 tablet Spirulina) + 1 tablet High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 500mg Vitamin C plus 1 capsule probiotics.
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If you experience difficulties of any kind, go through a process of elimination to find the offending item(s). Then restart sequence.
Ø Second Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 1 tablet of Chlorella (or 1 tablet Spirulina) + 1 tablet High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 500mg Vitamin C plus 1 capsule probiotics plus 1 tablet Kelp.
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Starting Schedule.
Ø Third Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 1 tablet of Chlorella (or 1 tablet Spirulina) + 1 tablet High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 500mg Vitamin C plus 1 capsule probiotics plus 1 tablet Kelp plus 1 capsule Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil).
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Second Schedule.
Ø Fourth Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 2 tablets of Chlorella (or 2 tablets Spirulina) + 2 tablets High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 500mg Vitamin C plus 1 capsule probiotics plus 1 tablet Kelp plus 1 capsule Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil).
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Third Schedule.
Ø Fifth Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 2 tablets of Chlorella (or 2 tablets Spirulina) + 2 tablets High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 1,000mg Vitamin C plus 1 capsule probiotics plus 2 tablets Kelp plus 2 capsules Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil).
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Fourth Schedule.
Ø Sixth Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 3 tablets of Chlorella (or 3 tablets Spirulina) + 3 tablets High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 1,000mg Vitamin C plus 1 capsule probiotics plus 2 tablets Kelp plus 2 capsules Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil).
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Fifth Schedule.
Ø Seventh Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 3 tablets of Chlorella (or 3 tablets Spirulina) + 3 tablets High Quality Bone Meal with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 1,000mg Vitamin C plus plus 2 tablets Kelp plus 1 capsule probiotics plus 2 capsules Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil) + 250mg NAC.
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Sixth Schedule.
Ø Eighth Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 3 tablets of Chlorella (or 3 tablets Spirulina) + 3 tablets High Quality Bone Meal plus 1 probiotic with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 1,000mg Vitamin C plus 2 tablets Kelp plus 2 capsules Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil) + 250mg NAC.
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Seventh Schedule.
Ø Ninth Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 3 tablets of Chlorella (or 3 tablets Spirulina) + 3 tablets High Quality Bone Meal plus 1 capsule probiotic with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 1,000mg Vitamin C plus 2 tablets Kelp plus 2 capsules Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil) + 400mg NAC, and take 1mg of Melatonin at bedtime.
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, continue onto the next schedule... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Eighth Schedule.
Ø Tenth & Final Schedule for Pregnant & Nursing Mothers: 3 tablets of Chlorella (or 3 tablets Spirulina) + 3 tablets High Quality Bone Meal plus 1 capsule probiotics with each meal. Then at only one meal per day take: 200iu Natural Vitamin E plus 100mcg organic selenium and 1,000mg Vitamin C plus 2 tablets Kelp plus 2 capsules Krill oil (or Fish Liver Oil) + 400mg NAC, and take 3mg of Melatonin at bedtime.
If after three days of taking above, no nausea or other discomfort arises if you are pregnant, or no mild skin rash or colic arises in your nursing baby, or any other suspicious symptom, you may remain at this final schedule indefinitely... If problems arise, discontinue until symptoms abate and resume the Ninth Schedule.
The above schedules are designed to build intracellular glutathione stores via melatonin, selenium and NAC rapidly over time - the key molecule the body uses to eliminate radioactive metals through the bile - plus adequate antioxidant reserves such as Vitamin E which defend against lipid and genetic associated free-radicals.23, 48 The above list of nutrients also doubles as valuable nutritional items that all human beings can use, providing no allergy or sensitivity arises with their use.
Q: What can I do to antidote my exposures to radiation therapy for my cancer?
A: Radiation toxicity from any source, including the after effects of radioablative therapy, can be detoxified or lessened and even reversed by the use of colloidal Regeneration Factors or cRFsTM.38, 39, 40, 65 Just be sure to take after radioablative therapy has completed or is placed on hold. cRFsTM derive from select raw foods which contain high amounts of RNA or nucleoproteins as found in organ meats, nuts & seeds, sprouts, food-grade algae and bee pollen.(C) Folks who tend to get gouty cannot take high amounts of these select foods sources, but usually can handle some intake providing the source is raw and not cooked. For example, food grade algae products, which are raw, can serve such folks well if lots of SAW is being ingested as well. All protocols for diet under this website are high in these factors, i.e., SAW plus RNA-cRFsTM.
For an average size adult, the foremost factors one should focus on to reduce the toxic after affects from radioablative therapy are:
A. NAC (as above);6
B. Chlorophyll (found in sea vegetables, and richest in Chlorella or Spirulina - 5 per meal for adults);3, 4
C. cRFsTM - As found in Chlorella, Spirulina and organic organ meats such as liver, spleen and thymus in freeze-dried format. When taking capsules of organic
glandulars without algae products as above, up to a combined 12 to 18 capsules per day for an average adult is optimal. When taking with algae products
according to the above dosages, cut this amount in 1/2);1, 2, 65
D. Krill oil or Vitamin E Complex (including delta and gamma tocopherols and tocotrienols taken as above). Krill oil is 300 times more powerful than Vitamin E
and 34 times more powerful than CoQ10 for reducing free-radical damage, mainly to cellular lipid membranes in the body;7, 21, 27, 28, 65
E. Lipoic acid as R-alpha lipoic acid (100mg three times daily for adults, 100mg daily for young adults and children, 25mg - 50mg daily for the very young - when
no toxic metal particles are involved - just gamma rays);7
F. Melatonin (1mg to 20mg at bedtime for adults, ≤ 1mg to 3mg for children and young adults respectively);5
G. Reduced CoQ10 or Ubiquinol (100mg daily for adults, 50mg per day for smaller adults and children, 25mg daily for the very young);7, 21
H. Vitamin C and Quercetin (1,000mg three times daily and 100mg three times daily respectively);7, 21
I. Organic Selenium as selenomethionate or when grown into kelp or other foods (400mcg - 600mcg daily for adults, 200mcg - 400mcg daily for young adults,
200mcg daily for children, 50mcg - 100mcg daily for the very young).21
J. Probiotics (1 per meal) + high-grade Aloe (1 ounce of liquid taken with each meal or 1 capsule of 200X - with Aloin removed).
In some cases, the intestinal tract can become severely irritated from combinations of chemotherapy with radiation therapy. For such cases, some of the above items may further irritate the gut, such as too much Vitamin C. Shifting emphasis to cRFsTM, Omega 3 oils, and chlorophyll (all especially rich in green and blue-green algae products), plus probiotics, high quality whey products and digestive enzymes may be essential to properly recover for the long term. The key is to isolate individual nutrients one at a time if any group of them induces more gut irritation. Play process of elimination, and you can often figure out what really works for you. If any confusion remains, your holistic trained doctor can adjust the above dosages down or up according to your weight.
Dividing dosages of NAC into smaller amounts:
Simply take one capsule of NAC and pour it into an exact amount of water. For example, with 500mg capsules, use 5 ounces of water, and for 600mg capsules use 6 ounces of water. Then take the exact amount of NAC you need according to the number of ounces you need per meal to achieve your objectives according to body weight. Refrigerate the remainder of NAC water in between meals to preserve freshness.
Strongly suggested additions to the diet:
All manner and selections of sea vegetables (seaweed dishes) are the first choice along with washed organic fruits.9, 10, 80, 81, 83
Washing of fruits and vegetables:
If fruits or vegetables are suspected to have been exposed to Fall-Out, washing them with water and baking soda should remove the particles on the skin of the fruits. Simply mix two tablespoons per pint of water for a rinse, and that should pull off most of the radioactive particles clinging to the outer skin. Once these radioactive particles enter into the food supply chain, they will be absorbed into the fruit or vegetable. This is why it is essential in my view to be regular about taking daily supplementation as suggested above, and according to your doctor's instructions, since it is proven we can both protect and then remove radioactive particles efficiently from our bodies once absorbed.84
Always restore the body's own self-healing system first. Then the "footing" of all other natural healing tools employed will have the advantage of driving forward from the high-ground. cRFsTM are key to this strategy when dealing with all radiation toxicity situations, as is abundant SAW and plenty of fresh air. With so much to gain, and so little to lose, why not at least consider a sound maintenance schedule for you and your family?
For comprehensive, well-documented, authoritative reports on U.S. government official misinformation campaigns,
outright propaganda policies and misconduct regarding radiation threats to the American public, firstand finally see: http://www.breastcancerfund.org/assets/pdfs/publications/state-of-the-evidence-2010.pdf
Highly Suggested Additional Reading:
1. See Chapters 7 - 11 and especially 13: http://www.hss.energy.gov/HealthSafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html
2. Brownstein D, Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It. 4th Edition, Medical Alternative Press, West Bloomfield, MI.
3. Graeub R. The Petkau Effect: Nuclear Radiation, People and Trees, Four Walls Eight Windows, NY, 1992.
4. Gould JM, Goldman BA. Deadly Deceit: Low Level Radiation High Level Cover-Up, Four Walls Eight Windows, NY, 1990.
5. Gould JM. The Enemy Within: High Cost of Living Near Nuclear Reactors, Four Walls Eight Windows, NY, 1996.
6. McGarity TO, Wagner WE. Bending Science: How Special Interests Corrupt Public Health Research, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008. ISBN: 978-0-674-04714-3.
7. Walker JS. Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2000.
(A). Abram Petkau, MD, PhD, performed nuclear radiation research under the Atomic Energy of Canada, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Pinowa, Manitoba during the early 1970's.
(B). For a complete review on low-level radiation dangers and cover-ups, please see: Gould JM, Sternglass EJ, Mangano JJ, and McDonnell W. The Enemy Within. Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, NY
(1996); and Gould JM, Goldman BA. Deadly Deceit: Low-Level Radiation High-Level Coverup. 2nd ed. Four Walls Eight Windows, New York NY (1991).
(C). See upcoming eBook The Regeneration Effect, Volume 1, for complete documentation covering this subject and the items listed above. See: http://doctorapsley.com/EBooks.aspx
(D). By "Natural Vitamin E" it is meant that no "dl" alpha tocopherol is present (only the "d' form is natural) and that other fractions of the Vitamin E Complex are present; for example, the gamma &
delta fractions, plus tocotrienols.
(E). Spirulina often tastes objectionable to children when sprinkled into drinks, but Chlorella is commonly readily accepted when added into sweet natural juices or enough milk. By milk, we don't necessarily
mean cow's milk, but rather nut milks or raw certified goat's milk.
(H). Americium-241 (which comes from the decay within nuclear reactors of Putonium-244) with half life of ~432 years;
Americium-242 with half life of ~1,444 years;
Americium-243 with half-life of ~7,370 years;
Barium-140 (which comes from Cesium-137 decay) with half-life of ~13 days;
Cesium-137 (which comes from the decay within nuclear reactors of Uranium-235) with a half-life of ~30 years;
Iodine-131 (which comes from the decay within nuclear reactors of both Plutonium-244 & Uranium-235) with a half-life of ~8 days;
Plutonium-244 with a half-life of ~80 years;
Plutonium-239 with a half-life of ~24,000 years;
Plutonium-238 with a half-life of ~88 years;
Strontium-90 (which comes from the decay within nuclear reactors of both Plutonium-244 & Uranium-235) with a half-life of ~29 years;
Tellurium-132 (which comes from the decay within nuclear reactors of both Plutonium-244 & Uranium-235) with a half-life of ~3 days;
Uranium-238 with a half-life of ~4.5 Billion years;
Uranium-235 (most common radioactive isotope from nuclear reactors) with a half-life of ~700 million years;
Uranium-234 with a half-life of ~250,000 years;
Yttrium-91 (which comes from Strontium-90) with a half-life of ~59 days; and
Yttrium-90 with a half-life of ~64 hours.
(I). See: http://www.infoukes.com/history/chornobyl/zuzak/page-08.html. Patrick Reid of ALARA Research, Inc. addressed the following question related to the explosive potential of the outer coating to the
Chernobyl fuel rods - Zirconium oxide (also known as Zircaloy)...
Q: "Did the following reaction (which is presumably exothermic above 1800 Celsius) occur during the Chornobyl explosion? 2(H2O) + Zr --> ZrO2 + 2(H2)."
A: "The exothermic Zircaloy-steam reaction is exothermic for all temperatures. The reaction rate becomes of some importance in typical CANDU accident analysis for temperatures >~1200 C. There is a
significant increase in the reaction rate at ~1500 C, above which the reaction can "take off" under conditions in which the supply of oxygen is sufficient. Such takeoff will lead to temperature escalation
which is not terminated until either the Zircaloy is totally consumed, significant heat transfer is provided to the Zircaloy, or the reaction becomes oxygen starved."
Patrick Reid e-mail: email@example.com ALARA Research, Inc. Saint John, Nb. Canada Voice: (506) 674-9099 Fax: (506) 674-9197.
(J). So called normal background radiation levels are stated to be 2.4 millisieverts (2.4 mSv) per year, or 0.24 rems per year. Put another way, normal levels of background radiation we are exposed to average
0.00017 mSv to 0.00039 mSv per hour according to the Worl Nuclear Association. For comparision, an average CAT scan exposes a person to 6.9 mSv, or 0.69 rems. See: Reuters. How much radiation is
dangerous? Tokyo, March 27, 2011; First Published: 15:49 IST(27/3/2011); Last Updated: 15:51 IST(27/3/2011). (Sources: Taiwan Atomic Energy Council, World Nuclear Association, US Department of
Transportation, US Environmental Protection Agency.) © Copyright 2011 Hindustan Times.
(K). In Tokyo, CNN reported on March 25th that at least 17 workers at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant had been exposed to over 100 mSv of radiation; and three were exposed in less than 1 hour to over
170 mSv of radiation. For practical purposes, 1 rad equals 1 rem which equals 10 mSv. Linear model of risks from exposures to radiation rays (not applicable to tissue adsorbed particles) established by
the U.S. EPA:
(L). There are 23 GE Mark1 Boiling Water Reactors in the U.S. of the same design as those at Fukushima. Prior to 1980, due to concerns about a complete meltdown of such reactors, the Atomic Energy Commission reported in its WASH-740-Update: "The possible size of the area of such a disaster might be equal to that of the State of Pennsylvania."
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32. Tennant J. Healing is Voltage: The Key to Pain Control and Chronic Disease, Tennant Institute for Integrative Medicine and Pain Control, Irving, TX. 972-580-1156.
33. The Phase Angle is the angle between resistance and impedence, and is measured in degrees. See: http://www.rjlsystems.com/bia-disease-states.shtml
34. Rotkovska D, et al. The radioprotective effects of aqueous extract from Chlorococcal freshwater algae (Chlorella kessieri) in mice and rats. Strahlenther Onkol. 1989;165:813.
35. Vacek A, et al. Radioprotection of hemopoisesis conferred by aqueous extract from Chlorococcal algae (Ivastimul) administered to mice before radiation. Exp Heamotol. 1990;18:237-73.
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38. Maisin J, et al. Yeast ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides as recovery factors in rats receiving an acute whole-body dose of X-rays. Nature, 1960;186:487-95.
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41. Cousens G. Conscious Eating. North Atlantic Books; 2 edition (April 11, 2000). ISBN13: 9781556432859
42. Ewing SA, et al. Pb Isotopes as an Indicator of the Asian Contribution to Particulate Air Pollution in Urban California, Environ Sci Technol, 2010;44(23):8911–16.
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48. Periyakaruppan A, Kumar F, Sarkar S, Sharma CS, Ramesh GT. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Arch Toxicol. 2007 Jun;81(6):389-95. Epub 2006 Nov 24.
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50. Segi M, Kurihara M, Matsuyama T. Cancer Mortality in Japan (1899-1962); Department of Public Health, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 1965.
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52. Wu GF, et al. Limited sufficiency of antigen presentation by dendritic cells in models of central nervous system autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2011 Feb;36(1):56-64. Epub 2010 Nov 20.
53. Shapira Y, Agmon-Levin N, Shoenfeld Y. Defining and analyzing geoepidemiology and human autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 2010 May;34(3):J168-77. Epub 2010 Jan 19.
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55. Brenner DJ, Doll R, Goodhead DT, et al. (2003). Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 100 (24):13761-13766.
56. Nikolopoulos D, Vogiannis E, Petraki E, Zisos A, Louizi A. Investigation of the exposure to radon and progeny in the thermal spas of Loutraki (Attica-Greece): results from measurements and modeling.
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57. Vogiannis E, Nikolopoulos D. Modelling of radon concentration peaks in thermal spas: application to Polichnitos and Eftalou spas (Lesvos Island--Greece). Sci Total Environ. 2008 Nov 1;405(1-3):
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58. Yamaoka K, et al. Basic study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon therapy. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 2001;33(2):133-8.
59. Yamaoka K, et al. The elevation of p53 protein level and SOD activity in the resident blood of the Misasa radon hot spring district. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2005 Mar;46(1):21-4.
60. Florou H, et al. Field observations of the effects of protracted low levels of ionizing radiation on natural aquatic population by using a cytogenetic tool. J Environ Radioact. 2004;75(3):267-83.
61. Florou H, Trabidou G, Nicolaou G. An assessment of the external radiological impact in areas of Greece with elevated natural radioactivity. J Environ Radioact. 2007 Jan 24;93(2):74-83.
62. McGarity TO, Wagner WE. Bending Science: How Special Interests Corrupt Public Health Research. Harvard University Press (March 15, 2010). ISBN-10: 0674047141; ISBN-13: 978-0674047143
65. Atasoy BM, et al. Prophylactic feeding with immune-enhanced diet ameliorates chemoradiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Oct;86(10):867-79.
66. NRC: National Research Council (2005). Biologic effects of ionizing radiation VII: Health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. National Academy of Science, Washington DC.
67. Smith DR. Nuclear criticality accidents. Occup Med. 1991 Oct-Dec;6(4):569-79.
68. Fliedner TM, Graessle DH. Hematopoietic cell renewal systems: mechanisms of coping and failing after chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2008 Feb;47(1):63-9.
69. Whistler T, et al. Impaired immune function in Gulf War Illness. BMC Med Genomics. 2009 Mar 5;2:12.
70. Bertell R. Depleted uranium: all the questions about DU and Gulf War syndrome are not yet answered. Int J Health Serv. 2006;36(3):503-20. (SIDE NOTE: This article highlights the need for appraising
suspected DU exposure injuries in a different manner. This suggestion dovetails with my proposal related to the subject of "Strict Determinism" above along seven ideal study parameters after Ling and
71. Marshall AC. Gulf war depleted uranium risks. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008 Jan;18(1):95-108. Epub 2007 Feb 14.
72. Horner RD, et al. Occurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among Gulf War veterans. Neurology. 2003 Sep 23;61(6):742-9.
73. Kasarskis EJ, et al. Clinical aspects of ALS in Gulf War veterans. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2009 Feb;10(1):35-41.
74. Abraham GE, The Wolff-Chaikoff effect of increasing iodide intake on the thyroid. Townsend Letter, 2003;(245):100-1.
75. Abraham GE, Flechas JD, Hakala JC. Optimum levels of iodine for greatest mental and physical health. The Original Internist, 2000;9:5-20.
76. Abraham GE. The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice. The Original Internist, 2004 Apr;11:17-36.
77. Abraham GE, Flechas JD. The effect of daily ingestion of 100mg iodine combined with high doses of Vitamins B2 and B3 (ATP cofactors) in five subjects with Fibromyalgia. The Original Internist, 2008
Mar;15(1):8-15. See: http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-21/IOD_21.htm
78. Abraham GE. Iodine supplementation markedly increases urinary excretion of fluoride and bromide. Townsend Letter, 2003;(238):108-9.
79. Abraham GE, Brownstein D. Evidence that the administration of Vitamin C improves a defective cellular transport mechanism for iodine: A case report. The Original Internist. 2005;12(3):125-30.
80. Bandazhevskaya GS, Nesterenko VB, Babenko VI, Yerkovich TV, Bandazhevsky YI. Relationship between caesium (137Cs) load, cardiovascular symptoms, and source of food in 'Chernobyl' children --
preliminary observations after intake of oral apple pectin. Swiss Med Wkly. 2004 Dec 18;134(49-50):725-9.
81. Hollriegl V, Rohmuss M, Oeh U, Roth P. Strontium biokinetics in humans: influence of alginate on the uptake of ingested strontium. Health Phys. 2004 Feb;86(2):193-6.
82. Gong YF, et al. Suppression of radioactive strontium absorption by sodium alginate in animals and human subjects. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Sep;4(3):273-82.
83. Hill P, Schläger M, Vogel V, Hille R, Nesterenko AV, Nesterenko VB. Studies on the current 137Cs body burden of children in Belarus--can the dose be further reduced? Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-
84. Nesterenko VB, Nesterenko AV. Decorporation of Chernobyl radionuclides. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Nov;1181:303-10.
85. Mangano JJ. Childhood leukemia in US may have risen due to Fall Out from Chernobyl, BMJ. 1997 Apr 19;314(7088):1200.
86. Graeub R. The Petkau Effect: Nuclear Radiation, People and Trees, Four Walls Eight Windows, NY, 1992. ISBN: 0-941423-72-7.
87. Gould JM, Goldman BA. Deadly Deceit: Low Level Radiation High Level Cover-Up, Four Walls Eight Windows, NY, 1990. ISBN: 0-941423-35-2.
88. Gould JM. The Enemy Within: High Cost of Living Near Nuclear Reactors, Four Walls Eight Windows, NY, 1996. ISBN: 1-56858-06605.
89. Walker JS. Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2000. ISBN: 0-520-22328-4.
93. See: http://www.hss.energy.gov/HealthSafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html Especially Chapters 7 - 11 & 13. This will tell you unequivocally we cannot trust our government on issues relating on
radiation exposures to the U.S. general public.
94. Op. cit. Deadly Deceit; pp. 71-3.
95. Op. cit. The Enemy Within; pp. 1-13.
96. McGarity TO, Wagner WE. Bending Science: How Special Interests Corrupt Public Health Research. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2010. pp. 34-6.
99. Yablokov AV, Nesterenko VB, Nesterenko AV. Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) (paperback ed.), Wiley-Blackwell,
2009 Dec; Volume 1181. ISBN 978-1573317573. Also see: http://www.talkradionews.com/news/2011/3/25/fukushima-crisis-could-have-long-term-impact-claims-chernoyb.html
100. See: www.radiation.org
101. Chapman KW, Chupas PJ, Nenoff TM. Radioactive iodine capture in silver-containing mordenites through nanoscale silver iodide formation. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Jul 7;132(26):8897-9.
102. Zhang GH, Liu XS, Thomas JK. Radiation induced physical and chemical processes in zeolite materials. Radiation Physics And Chemistry, 1998 Feb;51(2):135-52.
103. Dyer A, Las T, Zubair M. The Use of Natural Zeolites for Radioactive Waste Treatment: Studies on Leaching from Zeolite/Cement Composites. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2000;
104. Forberg S, Jones B, Westermark T. Can zeolites decrease the uptake and accelerate the excretion of radio-caesium in ruminants? Sci. Total Environ. 1989;79:37–41.
105. See Reuters: http://ca.reuters.com/article/idCATRE72A0SS20110328 which reported the startling finding of Plutonium-238/239/240.
106. See Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-25/cows-in-japan-barred-from-grazing-as-radiation-leaks-from-fukushima-plant.html which reported the findings on radioactive Cobalt, Cesium
107. Leon JD, et al. Nuclear Experiment: Arrival time and magnitude of airborne fission products from the Fukushima, Japan, reactor incident as measured in Seattle, WA, USA, Cornell University Library
See: http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/26571/ which found radioactive Cesium-137/134, Iodide-133/132/131, and Tellurium-132 likely arriving from Fukushima Fall-Out landing in Seattle, WA.
108. See: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42280076
111. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zircaloy112.
113. See: http://www.espi-metals.com/msds's/Zirconium.htm. This link definitely confirms Zircaloy particle coatings can explode.
116. See: Fox News report, Channel 360, Special Report with Bret Baier, 15:25 PST, April 1st, 2011.
117. Op. cit. The Enemy Within; p. 115 & Appendix D, pp. 321-9.
119. Fox News Reporting: The Disaster in Japan with Sheppard Smith, Channel 360, 20:30 PST, April 2nd, 2001.
Also see abstracts below:
Seaweeds & Kelp:
Kitasato Arch Exp Med. 1992 Dec;65(4):209-16.
Suppression of 125I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding: possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine.
Maruyama H, Yamamoto I.
Department of Pathology, Kitasato University School of Hygienic Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.
We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530 +/- 0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8 +/- 1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008 +/- 0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4% +/- 0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of 125I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and beta-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. PMID: 1344008
Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Sep;4(3):273-82.
Suppression of radioactive strontium absorption by sodium alginate in animals and human subjects.
Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China.
The effect of 23 sodium alginate preparations from different species of algae (Sargassum sp.) and kelp (Laminaria sp.) on reducing the absorption of strontium was studied in detail. A pilot production procedure has been established. Na alginate from S. siliquastrum was proven to be a potent agent for reducing Sr absorption, with high efficiency and virtually no toxicity. It reduced the body burden of strontium 3.3-4.2 fold in rats. Strontium absorption in human subjects was reduced by 78% (+/- 8.9) or completely suppressed the increase of serum Sr at 2 h after ingestion of stable Sr in volunteers and decrease 24 h urine Sr to similar extent. No undesirable effects on gastrointestinal function was observed nor were Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn metabolism changed, both in the animal experiments and in human. It was concluded that alginate preparations derived from Sargassum species are a suitable antidote against radiostrontium absorption on a long-term basis, when added to bread at a 6% level. In cases of emergency, an alginate syrup preparation appears to be more suitable because of its rapid action. PMID: 1764217
Studies Associated with Pectin:
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Nov;1181:303-10.
Institute of Radiation Safety (BELRAD), 2-nd Marusinsky St. 27, Minsk 220053, Belarus. firstname.lastname@example.org
Tens of thousands of Chernobyl children (mostly from Belarus) annually leave to receive treatment and health care in other countries. Doctors from many countries gratuitously work in the Chernobyl contaminated territories, helping to minimize the consequences of this most terrible technologic catastrophe in history. But the scale and spectrum of the consequences are so high, that no country in the world can cope alone with the long-term consequences of such a catastrophe as Chernobyl. The countries that have suffered the most, especially Ukraine and Belarus, extend gratitude for the help that has come through the United Nations and other international organizations, as well as from private funds and initiatives. Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl releases, the annual individual dose limit in heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia exceed 1 mSv/year just because of the unavoidable consumption of locally contaminated products. The 11-year experience of the BELRAD Institute shows that for effective radiation protection it is necessary to establish the interference level for children at 30% of the official dangerous limit (i.e., 15-20 Bq/kg). The direct whole body counting measurements of Cs-137 accumulation in the bodies of inhabitants of the heavily contaminated Belarussian region shows that the official Dose Catalogue underestimates the annual dose burdens by three to eight times. For practical reasons the curative-like use of apple-pectin food additives might be especially helpful for effective decorporation of Cs-137. From 1996 to 2007 a total of more than 160,000 Belarussian children received pectin food additives during 18 to 25 days of treatment (5 g twice a day). As a result, levels of Cs-137 in children's organs decreased after each course of pectin additives by an average of 30 to 40%. Manufacture and application of various pectin-based food additives and drinks (using apples, currants, grapes, sea seaweed, etc.) is one of the most effective ways for individual radioprotection (through decorporation) under circumstances where consumption of radioactively contaminated food is unavoidable. PMID: 20002057
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):523-6. Epub 2007 Feb 20.
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich, Germany. email@example.com
After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus were contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of 137Cs as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the therapeutic application of a pectin preparation (Vitapect), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children received a pectin compound named Vitapect for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The 137Cs body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. The mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapect groups was found to be approximately 33%, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by approximately 14%, due to clean food supply. It is known that pectins chemically bind cations like cesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase faecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption and considering metabolism processes are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocesium in the human body after pectin treatment. PMID: 17314090
Lik Sprava. 1993 Jul;(8):21-4.
Effect of natural and enriched with pectin tanned fruits on radiation-induced metabolic disorders was studied in persons subjected to radiation due to Chernobyl accident. It was shown that products in question beneficially influenced blood antioxidant system as well as brought to the norm contents of triglicerides and albumins in patients with IIa and IV types of hyperlipoproteinaemia. PMID: 8079467
Studies Associated with NAC, Selenium, Vit. C & E, Lipoic acid and CoQ10 supplementation:
Radiat Res. 2010 Apr;173(4):462-8.
Antioxidant diet supplementation starting 24 hours after exposure reduces radiation lethality.
Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Antioxidants mitigate radiation-induced lethality when started soon after radiation exposure, a delivery time that may not be practical due to difficulties in distribution and because the oral administration of such agents may require a delay beyond the prodromal stage of the radiation syndrome. We report the unexpected finding that antioxidant supplementation starting 24 h after total-body irradiation resulted in better survival than antioxidant supplementation started soon after the irradiation. The antioxidant dietary supplement was l-selenomethionine, sodium ascorbate, N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, alpha-tocopherol succinate, and co-enzyme Q10. Total-body irradiation with 8 Gy in the absence of antioxidant supplementation was lethal by day 16. When antioxidant supplementation was started soon after irradiation, four of 14 mice survived. In contrast, 14 of 18 mice receiving antioxidant supplementation starting 24 h after irradiation were alive and well 30 days later. The numbers of spleen colonies and blood cells were higher in mice receiving antioxidant supplementation starting 24 h after irradiation than in mice receiving radiation alone. A diet supplemented with antioxidants administered starting 24 h after total-body irradiation improved bone marrow cell survival and mitigated lethality, with a radiation protection factor of approximately 1.18. PMID: 20334518
Studies with RNA, Omega 3 Oils:
Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Oct;86(10):867-79.
Prophylactic feeding with immune-enhanced diet ameliorates chemoradiation-induced gastrointestinal injury in rats.
Departments of Radiation Oncology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of immune-enhanced diet (IED) on chemoradiation-induced injury of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (C, n=6), irradiation (IR, n=14), fluoropyrimidine (5-FU, n=14)-treated, IR + 5-FU (n=14)-treated groups. Half of each irradiated and/or 5-FU-treated groups were previously fed with IED containing arginine, omega-3-fatty acids and RNA fragments, while the other half were fed a standard rat diet (SD) for eight days before the induction of IR or injection of 5-FU. In IR groups, whole abdominal irradiation (11 Gy) was performed with 6 MV photons. In the 5-FU groups, fluoropyrimidine (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to irradiation. All animals were sacrificed on the 4th day of IR or 5-FU injection.
RESULTS: Bacterial colony counts in the ceca and mesenteric lymph nodes of IED-fed rats, which have received either 5-FU and/or irradiation were significantly lower than the corresponding SD-fed groups. Morphometric results revealed that gastric, ileal and colonic injuries were less in IED-treated IR or IR + 5-FU + IED groups, as compared to SD-fed groups. However, IED did not alter DNA fragmentation ratios.
CONCLUSION: Prophylactic feeding of IED has a protective effect on chemoradiation-induced gastrointestinal injury, which appears to involve the eradication of bacterial overgrowth. PMID: 20653343
Studies Associated with Calcium Intake (and therefore pertaining to Bone Meal supplementation):
Health Phys. 2004 Jun;86(6):557-64.
Dietary intakes of seven elements of importance in radiological protection by asian population: comparison with ICRP data.
Nutrition and Health-Related Environmental Studies Section Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. V.Iyengar@IAEA.org
Within the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, the daily dietary intakes of seven elements by adult populations living in nine Asian countries were estimated. The countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea (Republic of Korea, ROK), and Vietnam and together they represented more than half of the world population. The seven elements studied were calcium, cesium, iodine, potassium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. These elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. Analyses of diet samples for these seven elements were carried out using highly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques. One thousand one hundred and sixty analytical determinations were made on two hundred and twenty samples of typical diets consumed in these countries to estimate the daily intakes of these elements by the adult Asian population. The median daily dietary intakes for the adult Asian population were found to be 0.45 g calcium, 7 microg cesium, 90 microg iodine, 1.75 g potassium, 1.65 mg strontium, 1 microg thorium, and 1 microg uranium. When compared with the intakes proposed for ICRP Reference Man by International Commission for Radiological Protection, these intakes were lower by factors of 0.41 for calcium, 0.7 for cesium, 0.45 for iodine, 0.53 for potassium, 0.87 for strontium, 0.33 for thorium, and 0.52 for uranium. The lower daily intakes of calcium, cesium, and iodine by Asian population could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium in most of the Asian countries may lead to higher uptake of fission nuclide 90Sr and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate and lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggest that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from ICRP data. PMID: 15167119
Health Phys. 2002 Jul;83(1):56-65.
Absorption of strontium from the gastrointestinal tract into plasma in healthy human adults.
SENES, Oak Ridge, Inc, TN 37830, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The radioactive isotopes of strontium have always been a major concern in radiation protection. Currently, radiostrontium is of interest for evaluation of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident and for epidemiological studies in populations exposed to releases from the Mayak nuclear facilities in Russia. Ingestion is one of the most important exposure pathways involving radioactive strontium. The main sources of published data on the fraction of the ingested strontium that is transferred to plasma (f1) are summarized. For some of these studies, the original data had to be reanalyzed and a new iterative method to account for the elimination in feces of strontium of endogenous origin (i.e., that was absorbed to blood and has already been returned into feces) was employed. Data indicate no significant dependence of the absorbed fraction on sex or age at exposure within the adult group, but absorption of (radioactive) strontium is reduced if the intake of stable calcium is very high and is enhanced if the intake of calcium is very low. The probability distribution function of f1 values is well represented by a lognormal curve with a geometric mean of 22.3% and a geometric standard deviation of 1.44 (95% confidence interval 10.9% to 45.6%, or about a factor of 2 around the geometric mean). This distribution can be considered representative for the variability of the f1 values in a population of healthy adults. PMID: 12075684
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Jul 1;59(3):639-53.
Melatonin as a radioprotective agent: a review.
Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, 78229, USA. email@example.com
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief secretory product of the pineal gland in the brain, is well known for its functional versatility. In hundreds of investigations, melatonin has been documented as a direct free radical scavenger and an indirect antioxidant, as well as an important immunomodulatory agent. The radical scavenging ability of melatonin is believed to work via electron donation to detoxify a variety of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. It has long been recognized that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are brought about by both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct action produces disruption of sensitive molecules in the cells, whereas the indirect effects ( approximately 70%) result from its interaction with water molecules, which results in the production of highly reactive free radicals such as *OH, *H, and e(aq)- and their subsequent action on subcellular structures. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of melatonin was used as a rationale to determine its radioprotective efficiency. Indeed, the results from many in vitro and in vivo investigations have confirmed that melatonin protects mammalian cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, several clinical reports indicate that melatonin administration, either alone or in combination with traditional radiotherapy, results in a favorable efficacy:toxicity ratio during the treatment of human cancers. This article reviews the literature from laboratory investigations that document the ability of melatonin to scavenge a variety of free radicals (including the hydroxyl radical induced by ionizing radiation) and summarizes the evidence that should be used to design larger translational research-based clinical trials using melatonin as a radioprotector and also in cancer radiotherapy. The potential use of melatonin for protecting individuals from radiation terrorism is also considered. PMID: 15183467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Jul;11(7):415-7, 390.
[Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua].
[Article in Chinese]
Qiao ZS, Wu H, Su ZW.
College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai.
There are three kinds of plants, Morinda officinalis (1), Damnacanthus officinarum (2), and Schisandra propinqua (3) whose roots have been used since the ancient time. In this paper, some of their pharmacological actions that are related to tonifying and invigorating Yang were examined and compared. The body weight, the thymus weight, the amount of leukocyte in the blood, and the continuing swimming times of the young mice could be increased with the oral administration of the water extractions of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05-0.001). The Rt of M-receptor in the brains of the hypothyroidism mice were decreased after administration of the water extracts of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05). (1) could also increased the amount of leukocyte in the blood of leukocytopenia mice caused by radiation of gamma-ray (P less than 0.01). (3) has not shown the obvious effects (P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that (1) and (2) have the ability of anti-fatigue, improving the immunological action of the young mice, and reducing the excitability of the para-sympathetic nervous system of the hypothyroidism mice through decreasing the Rt of M-receptor in their brains. All of them did not show acute toxicity, inducing mutation, and sexual hormone like actions. PMID: 1914038
Georgian Med News. 2009 Jun;(171):80-3.
[Radio protective drug production from fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill].
[Article in Russian]
Nowadays, phytogenous drugs are wildly used as radio protective substances. The aim of the research was to study radio protective characteristics of aloe juice fraction and to develop new technology for radio protective drug production. Technological scheme for getting the drug in two stages. The first stage - extraction of juice from fresh leaves; the second stage - extracting bagasse have been developed and optimal environment for bagasse extraction are defined: Infusion of bagasse with 96 % ethyl spirit (1:1) during 30 minutes, continuation of extracting with water on correlation to raw materials 10:1 at temperature of 70 degrees C during 30 minutes. For the basis of the first series of balanced loading there are taken the optimal parameters of extracting process, on the basis of which in its turn was developed technological scheme of getting dry extract of aloe. Dry extract is a fine-dispersed reddish-yellow (brownish-yellow) powder, which can be easily dissolved in warm (40-60 degrees C) water. Pharmacological researches were conducted in the Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch, Russian. Academy of Sciences. The remarkable radio protective effect of the drug was revealed. PMID: 19578223
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 Feb 12;98(2):144-51. Epub 2009 Dec 5.
Defensive effects of fullerene-C60/liposome complex against UVA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and cell death in human skin keratinocytes HaCaT, associated with intracellular uptake and extracellular excretion of fullerene-C60.
Laboratory of Cell-Death Control BioTechnology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562, Nanatsuka, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023, Japan.
The UVA-irradiation of 10 J/cm(2) on HaCaT keratinocytes increased 59.1% of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NBT assay and the cell viability decreased to 31.5% by WST-1 assay, comparing to the non-irradiated control. In the presence of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in phospholipid membrane vehicle (LiposomeFullerene: Lpsm-Flln) of 250-500 ppm, they were restored to -9.1% to +2.3% of the ROS and 83.0-84.8% of the cell viability, but scarcely restored by the liposome without C60 (Lpsm). In HaCaT cells administered with Lpsm-Flln (150 ppm), C60 was ingested at the intracellular concentrations of 1.4-21.9 ppm for 4-24 h, and, intracellular C60 was excreted by 80% at 4h after rinsing-out, and decreased to 2-10% after 24-48 h. C60 was predominantly distributed around the outside of nuclear membrane without deterioration of intact cell morphology according to fluorescent immunostain. Thus Lpsm-Flln is found to be an effective antioxidant that could preserve HaCaT keratinocytes against UVA-induced cellular injury. Lpsm-Flln has a potential to serve as a cosmetic material for skin protection against UVA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20060738 [PubMed - in process]
J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2008 May;49(3):321-7. Epub 2008 Feb 16.
Fullerenol C60(OH)24 effects on antioxidative enzymes activity in irradiated human erythroleukemia cell line.
Institute of Oncology, Department of Experimental Oncology, Sremska, Kamenica, Serbia.
Radiotherapy-induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anti-cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that are associated with radiation-induced cell death. Investigations of biological effects of fullerenol have provided evidence for its ROS/RNS scavenger properties in vitro and radioprotective efficiency in vivo. Therefore we were interested to evaluate its radioprotective properties in vitro in the human erythroleukemia cell line. Pre-treatment of irradiated cells by fullerenol exerted statistically significant effects on cell numbers and the response of antioxidative enzymes to X-ray irradiation-induced oxidative stress in cells. Our study provides evidence that the pre-treatment with fullerenol enhanced the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in irradiated K562 cells. PMID: 18285660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda):
A study of the acidosis, blood urea, and plasma chlorides in uranium nephritis in the dog, and of the protective action of sodium bicarbonate.
Methods: The presence of an acidosis in dogs with experimental uranium nephritis is demonstrable by the Van Slyke-Stillman-Cullen method and that of Marriott. It is detected more readily by the former method. This acidosis is associated with increase in the blood urea and plasma chlorides and with the appearance of albumin and casts in the urine. Results: The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate diminishes the acidosis, the increase in plasma chlorides, the amount of albumin and casts in the urine, and, to a lesser degree, the increase in the blood urea following the administration of uranium. It also diminishes the severity of the changes produced by uranium in the kidneys. Conclusions: The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate to normal dogs raises the carbon dioxide content of the plasma as determined by the Van Slyke-Stillman-Cullen method, and reduces the nephrotoxicity associated with uranium exposure in dogs.
J Radiol. 1994 Nov;75(11):571-5.
[Management of accidental internal exposure].
[Article in French]
Radionucleides can penetrate into the body via the lung, the digestive tract, wounds and sometimes through healthy skin. Once they have penetrated the body, they can either remain localized at the site of entry or be rapidly metabolized. The risk is late effects. Radioelements must be eliminated as rapidly as possible decreasing the exposure proportionally. The effectiveness of the treatment depends on early institution. Nevertheless, emergency intensive care or surgery may be required. As soon as possible, explorations must be carried out to evaluate the level of contamination (human spectrometry, radiotoxicological examinations) and to start treatment. Modalities include non-specific techniques (lavage, insolubilization, laxatives) and specific techniques such as complexation or isotopic dilution (iodine for iodine, Prussian blue for cesium, DTPA for plutonium, Diamox or sodium bicarbonate for uranium). Surgical cleaning of wounds and burns is an excellent means of decontamination. External contamination is often associated. Further contamination must be prevented immediately. PMID: 7844774
Int J Radiat Biol. 1995 Oct;68(4):389-93.
Efficacy of 3,4,3-LIHOPO for reducing the retention of uranium in rat after acute administration.
Institute de Protection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IPSN, Fontenay aux Roses, France.
Decorporation therapy is the only known effective method of reducing the radiation dose to persons following accidental internal contamination with transportable radionuclides. Deposits of actinides in bone should be minimized because development of osteosarcoma appears to be related to internal exposure. In contrast with other actinides, such as plutonium or americium where chelating agent treatment is efficient, the therapeuric approaches used for cases of uranium contamination are widely ineffective. This is the first report on in vivo efficacy of a chelating agent, a siderophore analogue code named 3,4,3-LIHOPO, after systematic exposure to natural uranium in the rat. Using the classical antidotal therapy (sodium bicarbonate) for comparison, this ligand has been investigated for its ability to remove uranium from rats after intravenous or intramuscular injection as nitrate. Following an immediate single intramuscular or intravenous injection of 3,4,3-LIHOPO (30 mumol.kg-1) urinary excretion of uranium was greatly enhanced with a corresponding reduction 24 h later in kidney and bone uranium content (to about 20 and 50% of the control rat respectively). Under identical experimental conditions, sodium bicarbonate (640 mumol.kg-1) reduced the uranium content in kidney in kidney and bone only to about 90 and 70% of controls respectively, and there was less enhancement of uranium excretion. However, when treatment was delayed by 30 min and administered intraperitoneally, there was no marked difference in retention and excretion of uranium between the two compounds. As this ligand showed no apparent irreversible toxicity at effective dosages, it is concluded that the administration of the 3,4,3-LIHOPO chelating agent represents potentially a most significant advance for prompt treatment of uranium contamination, while a more detailed investigation is necessary on the possible advantage when treatment delayed. PMID: 7594963
Ann Pharm Fr. 1999 Sep;57(5):397-400.
[Reduction of renal uranium uptake by acetazolamide: the importance of urinary elimination of bicarbonate].
[Article in French]
Centre d'Etudes du Bouchet, Clamart.
Acetazolamide was compared with bicarbonate for the treatment of contamination with uranium. Uranium was injected peritoneally in rats, and its distribution was investigated. Acetazolamide was three times more efficient than bicarbonate in reducing the renal content of uranium. On the other hand, it had no effect on hepatic or skeletal content. In this study, renal physiology provides the basis for understanding the mode of action of acetazolamide and bicarbonate. In this context, it is of interest to determine the alkalinity of the urine, with the aim of knowing whether bicarbonate is present to mobilize uranium. PMID: 10520511
J Cell Physiol. 2005 Dec;205(3):428-36.
Alkaline induces metallothionein gene expression and potentiates cell proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Institute of Radiation Biology and Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Metallothionein (MT) gene expression is increased in cadmium resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO Cd(R)) upon medium (regular or serum-free) change during culturing. Among the major components of the medium, NaHCO3 was found to be able to induce MT gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The same effect was observed with other alkaline solutions, such as HEPES and NaOH. Using MT promoter-luciferase reporter gene constructs, we found that the presence of metal response elements (MREs) in the promoter region is necessary for NaHCO3-induced MT gene transcription. This finding is further supported by the observation that the binding activity between the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and the MRE were increased after NaHCO3 treatment. Following NaHCO3 treatment, an increase in cell proliferation was observed in CdR cells but not in the parental CHO K1 cells that do not express MT transcripts due to MT gene methylation. Using synchronized cells, an increase in cell proliferation was observed 9 h after NaHCO3 addition. Notably, proliferation of CHO K1 cells was increased when transfected with an MT gene. The effect of MT on cell growth was affirmed by treating CHO K1 cells with 5-azacytidine (Aza) to demethylate the MT gene. Proliferation increased in Aza-treated CHO K1 cells after NaHCO3 treatment. These results demonstrate that NaHCO3 stimulates MT gene expression and causes an enhancement of cell proliferation in CHO cells. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 15965962
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Jun 15;213(3):245-55. Epub 2006 Jan 4.
Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and HIF-regulated genes.
Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University, School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, NY 10987, USA.
Several metal ions that are carcinogenic affect cellular iron homeostasis by competing with iron transporters or iron-regulated enzymes. Some metal ions can mimic a hypoxia response in cells under normal oxygen tension, and induce expression of HIF-1alpha-regulated genes. This study investigated whether 12 metal ions altered iron homeostasis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells as measured by an activation of IRP-1 and ferritin level. We also studied hypoxia signaling by measuring HIF-1alpha protein levels, hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter activity, and Cap43 protein level (an HIF-1alpha responsive gene). Our results show the following: (i) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), Mn(II), and to a lesser extent As(III) and Cu(II) activated the binding of IRP-1 to IRE after 24 h, while the other metal ions had no effect; (ii) 10 of 12 metal ions induced HIF-1alpha protein but to strikingly different degrees. Two of these metal ions, Al(III) and Cd(II), did not induce HIF-1alpha protein; however, as indicated below, only Ni(II), Co (II), and to lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) activated HIF-1alpha-dependent transcription. The combined effects of both [Ni(II) + As(III)] and [Ni(II) + Cr(VI)] on HIF-1alpha protein were synergistic; (iii) Addition of Fe(II) with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) attenuated the induction of HIF-1alpha after 4 h treatment; (iv) Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) significantly decrease ferritin level after 24 h exposure; (v) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) activated HRE reporter gene after 20 h treatment; (vi) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) increased the HIF-1-dependent Cap43 protein level after 24 h treatment. In conclusion, only Ni (II), Co (II), and to a lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) significantly stabilized HIF-1alpha protein, activated IRP, decreased the levels of ferritin, induced the transcription of HIF-dependent reporter, and increased the expression of Cap43 protein levels (HIF-dependent gene). The mechanism for the significant stabilization and elevation of HIF-1alpha protein which drives these other parameters was previously shown by us and others to involve a loss of cellular Fe as well as inhibition of HIF-1alpha-dependent prolyl hydroxylases which target the binding of VHL ubiquitin ligase and degrade HIF-1alpha. Even though there were small effects of some of the other metals on IRP and HIF-1alpha, downstream effects of HIF-1alpha activation and therefore robust hypoxia signaling were only observed with Ni(II), Co(II), and to much lesser extents with Mn(II) and V(V) in human A549 lung cells. It is of interest that the metal ions that were most effective in activating hypoxia signaling were the ones that were poor inducers of metallothionein protein and also decreased Ferritin levels, since both of these proteins can bind metal ions and protect the cell against toxicity in human lung cells. It is important to study effects of these metals in human lung cells since this represents a major route of human environmental and occupational exposure to these metal ions. PMID: 16386771
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