What is the first metatarsal bone ?
The first metatarsal bone is a finger-like bone to which the big toe attaches to. It extents about halfway down your foot toward your heel. There are five metatarsal bones one that attaches to each toe bone. They are inside your foot so you really cannot see them. The only way to truly see the metatarsal bones is with an x-ray of the foot.
Morton’s Toe, can be caused by one or both of two problems that can effect the first metatarsal bone
1. The first abnormal condition, and the most noted one, that can cause Morton’s Toe is where your first metatarsal bone is shorter than your second metatarsal bone.
2. The second condition that can cause a Morton’s Toe is when your first metatarsal bone is not as stable as it should be, and as a result, has too much motion. This is known as “Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone.”
Do You Have a Short First Metatarsal Bone?
Look down at your feet. Socks off please! If your second toe seems longer, (and I mean even just a hair longer) than your first toe, you may have a short first metatarsal bone.
The above photograph show a classic Morton’s Toe caused by a short first metatarsal bone. Note how the big toe is shorter than the second toe. Morton’s Toe is normally not this noticeable. Most of the time in a Morton’s Toe the big toe will appear to be only a little shorter than the second toe or just about the same length as the second toe.
Another way to check to see if you have a short first metatarsal bone is to hold your first and second toes down. Right behind the spot where the toes attach to the foot, you will see bumps pushing up from the top of your foot. These bumps are the heads of the first and second metatarsal bones. Using a pen, lipstick, or marker, draw a line where the bumps end (flat area) and meet the top of the foot.
This spot is the very end of both of the heads of the first and second metatarsal bones. Look at both lines. If the line of the second metatarsal head is farther down your foot toward your toes than the first metatarsal head, even just a very little, then you probably have a short first metatarsal bone.
Sometimes it is not necessary to draw a line on top of the foot because the relationship of the metatarsal heads can easily be seen. If this is the case, you can see without difficulty that the second metatarsal head is farther down the top of the foot than the first metatarsal head.
Frequently, people with short first metatarsal bones will also have a “webbing” between their second and third toes. They will have a flap of excess skin that sort of looks like a “bat wing” in between the second and third toes. If you do have this webbing of the toes, it is a pretty good tip off that you do have a short metatarsal bone or you are part duck. Check to see if Mom or Dad, or anyone else in the family has this also.
Do You Have Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone?
In a 1928 paper in the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, and in Chapter 23 of his book The Human Foot, Dr. Dudley J. Morton father of the Morton’s Toe writes about, hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone, the other problems associated with Morton’s Toe.
Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone may not be as famous as its “partner in pain,” the short first metatarsal bone, but in Morton’s own words “is responsible for the widest range of foot problems”. Hypermobility refers to the excessive motion present at the first metatarsal bone.
In the normal foot, there would be very little motion at this area. But in a foot with hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone, there is an excessive amount of motion that takes place. According to Dr. Morton, the reason for the excessive motion is due to an abnormal laxity (looseness) of the plantar ligament that runs under the metatarsal bone. This laxity is either inherited or acquired in childhood. Because the ligament is abnormally loose, the first metatarsal bone is not as stable as it should be, resulting in many foot problems.
Unlike the short first metatarsal bone, there is no simple reliable way that you can determine on your own if you have hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone. But because it is treated the same way as the short first metatarsal bone, with the Toe Pad, written about at the bottom of this page or discussed in greater detail in the new book Why You Really Hurt: It All Starts In The Foot . It is not that important for you to know for sure if you have hypermobility or not. What counts is are you any feeling better once you start to treat yourself for your Morton’s Toe?
Dr. Morton recognized that besides having either a short first metatarsal bone or hypermobility of that bone, there were many other actions, stresses, strains, and forces that affected the way your foot works and that can cause and contribute to foot problems. At no time or place did Dr. Morton ever state that having either of those conditions was a guarantee of having a foot problem or any other problem. In fact, the only thing he ever stated was that by having the short first metatarsal bone or the hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone may lead to having foot problems. In addition, it is very important that you need to be aware of it.
Aches and Pains a Morton’s Toe can cause, of your feet and body.
Morton’s Toe cannot only cause foot problems but as you will see, it can cause pains all over your body.
A. Foot Problems
The most common foot problem causes by a Morton’s Toe is due to excessive pressure under the second metatarsal head cause by the short first metatarsal bone. This pain, pressure or burring is commonly called metatarsalgia. But with time this ongoing abnormal pressure caused by a Morton’s Toe can lead to a callous being formed under the second metatarsal head.
Some of the other foot problems that can be caused by a Morton’s Toe are
B. Body wide problems caused by the Morton’s Toe
For several years, many of the patients I was treating for their foot problems due to Morton’s Toe were repeatedly telling me how much better they were feeling in other places on their bodies. They were happy because their feet were not only getting better, but also their backs, thighs, knees, legs and hips were also feeling better following my treatments. Many told me they were also sleeping better because of fewer leg cramps during the night. Some even told me their fibromyalgia was hurting less. I knew there was something special going on, but it did not immediately sink in.
It was not until about the time I finished my certification to become a Diplomat of the American Academy of Pain Management that I realized what my patients had been trying to tell me for years; a Morton’s Toe could also cause chronic pain almost anywhere in the body! I also finally “got it” because of the book published around that time by Drs. Janet Travell and David Simon on Myofascial Pain Syndrome. That book showed that Morton’s Toe was one of the underlying causes of this extremely painful muscular condition that could cause pain all over.
Let me make it simple. If you have either a short first metatarsal bone or the hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone, it can cause Myofascial Pain Syndrome, and can then cause many of the following aches, pains and conditions, not only of the feet, but also of the whole body.
It is very possible that because you have a Morton’s Toe, you have been suffering for years with an undiagnosed Myofascial Pain Syndrome or Fibromyalgia. This could be the real underlying cause of the aches and pains, all over your body, that no one, no medicine, or no thing, has been able to help. Millions of people suffer every day, with these torments and do not know why. I believe that in many cases Morton’s Toe is the explanation for this WHY, and the reason for aches and pains not only in their back, knee, and hip but also in a lot other places in their body.
How does a Morton’s Toe causes Fallen Arches, Flat Feet, Weak Ankle and Tired Feet.
Everybody knows or has heard of “fallen arches and flat feet”. The million dollar question is why do we get them to start with?
The answer is simple, Morton’s Toe causes fallen arches and flat feet. Dr. Morton wrote passionately about this in his article of 1928, and his books of 1935, 1939 and 1952. Dr. Morton had no doubt that fallen arches, flat feet, weak ankle and tired feet are all caused by a unstable first metatarsal bone. He said when you had hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone there will be a loss of stability at the arch. This loss of stability will then cause the arch to fall, tilt or collapse inwardly because it has less support than normal due to the hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone.
Once this collapsing starts toward the inside part of the foot, then a chain reaction begins to take place that can cause many problems of your foot, heel and ankle. The muscles of the ankle will attempt to fight off this unnatural inward titling or collapsing of the arch. But if the abnormal forces put upon the muscles at the ankle and at the arch are too great, then these muscles will become strained and exhausted. They will then start to hurt in their attempt to prevent the arch from collapsing and to maintain the balance of the feet.
This unsuccessful battle of trying to prevent the arch from collapsing by the muscles of the ankle is also a common cause of tired feet and weak ankles. Chronic ankle sprains can also be caused by this acquired instability at the ankle joint due to its battle of trying to prevent the arch from collapsing. This straining or exhausting of the muscles can also cause spasms at night. The good news is that these problems can be easily treated with a toe pad or a shoe insert. In reality, true “fallen arches” are a rare thing. In spite of the fact that the term is now used to refer to several foot problems, in actuality it means a total breakdown and substantial deformity of the foot. This severe condition is, in fact, a truly uncommon occurrence in our time.
In other words if you do have hypermobility at the first metatarsal bone, you will have improper weight bearing, and in turn, will lose the stability needed in supporting the arch. This is the real reason why our arches fall causing flat feet.
How many times in your life have you heard the term “fallen arches” and had no idea what it really meant? Now, the next time you are sitting around with friends or family and someone mentions fallen arches, you can impress the heck out of him by saying , “Did you know that according to Professor Dudley Joy Morton, fallen arches are caused by the laxity of the plantar ligaments, causing a hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone, which affects the stability of the longitudinal arch?”
How a Morton’s Toe makes you hurt, or what goes wrong
In a perfect situation, Mother Nature makes the first metatarsal bone as long as or longer than the second metatarsal bone. “Mom” also designed the first metatarsal bone so that it would be able to carry twice the weight as the second metatarsal bone. However if the first metatarsal bone is shorter than the second metatarsal bone, then this proper lifting by the first metatarsal bone cannot take place This is because with every step, the second metatarsal bone will abnormally meet the ground before the first metatarsal bone does. When this happens, the first metatarsal bone is not able of doing its job of supporting most of the weight of the front part of the foot. The second metatarsal bone is now forced to not only to lift its share of the burden, but now is made to absorb the first metatarsal bone’s share, as well. This makes the second metatarsal bone do 100% of the work, when normally it would be doing only one third of the work. This puts a tremendous amount of abnormal stress on the second metatarsal bone. It is this “super stress” put upon the second metatarsal bone that starts the chain of events that can cause us to hurt all over. More important this stress also results in something known as pronation.
WHAT IS PRONATION?
“Pronation has long been recognized as a
cardinal sign of foot disorder”
Dr. Dudley J. Morton
Human Locomotion & Body Form
Pronation is the single most important term used in any discussion of how the foot works. Morton’s Toe will cause you to have abnormal or over pronation. It is this pronation that is the ultimate cause or contributing factor to most of the problems that I write about, not only of your foot but also of your whole body.
Pronation is a series of movements our foot must make in order for us to walk properly. But, it is not that simply.
There are two types of pronation of the foot,
1. normal pronation, or
2. abnormal, or over pronation
Normal Pronation is a series of motions the foot must have, so that it can absorb the shock of meeting the ground. It must be able to do this, in order to adapt and adjust to the new walking surfaces it has just met. This adjustment should only last a fraction of a second to allow the foot to slow down ; absorb the shock of your body weight and adapt to the walking surface . At this point in time normal pronation is taking place the foot is referred to as a “bag of bones” due to it ability to adapt to the new walking or running surfaces. Part of this process of becoming a “bag of bones” is that the arch will start to flatten out and roll toward the ground. Once this adaption process has taken place your foot should stop pronating. If this does not happen and your foot keeps “over” pronating, it can then be the start of all the bad things that can happen to your foot and your body. If you think you have “fallen arches”, it is most probably because your feet are over pronating.
Over or Abnormal Pronation: As I stated above, this occurs when the foot is still pronating when it shouldn’t be. Once the foot has adapted to the ground the foot should stop pronating and should be starting to stabilizing itself or locking itself. This locking is called Supination* and is the opposite of Pronation. Supination must take place so the foot can become a “Rigid Lever*” (opposite of “bag of bones”) in order for it to support our body when we push off from the ground; and propel us forward for our next step. In Supination the arch of the foot goes up (instead of down as in Pronation) so that it can become the Ridge Lever. But, if you are Over Pronating and you still are a “Bag of Bones and not the Rigid Leverwhen pushing off from the ground, then your foot and body will attempt to stop the over pronation by compensation.
This compensation puts the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other structures under a tremendous amount of abnormal stress and strain not only of the foot but of the whole body. It is this abnormal stress caused by the body attempting to compensate that is the start of most of our feet and body wide problems. We know that if you have a Short First Metatarsal Bone, and or Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone, thanks to a Morton’s Toe you can have a lack of proper stabilization on the fore foot, at the critical moment when the foot must be a “ridge lever” in order for it to push off from the ground. This instability will force the foot to compensate in its attempt to become that “ridge lever”.
It is this instability that that hinders proper weight bearing that starts the chain of events, thru compensation, that ends in you numerous aches and pains not only of your foot but also thru out your body. Pronation can also be made worst if you have one leg shorter than the other.
Shortness and or hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone are a two-headed monster that decreases the ability of the first metatarsal to work properly. It causes over pronation when walking and results in putting greater stress and strain not only on the foot but also on the whole body.
Why you get a Morton’s Toe
Heredity is one of the major causes for having foot problems. When someone says that you look like your mom or dad, bear in mind that the resemblances can also extend to how your feet look and act. It is not unusual for me to examine three generations of one family only to see the Morton’s Toe, or other similar foot problems, are present in all three generations. Most people think the reason(s) their feet are hurting are because of a bad pair of shoes, having the wrong job or just standing too much. I don’t believe so. Don’t misunderstand, those things (job, shoes, standing) can definitely aggravate a foot already susceptible to having problems, but by themselves, they are rarely the real underlying causes of the foot problems. They are simply the external stresses that finally push your feet over the edge in mid-life, causing you to have pain. When I tell patients for the first time that their foot problems are NOT likely due to their job, shoes, and/or standing on their feet too much, but rather due to Ma, Pa, or Uncle Louie, they look at me dumbfounded. Think about it. Does everyone you work with, who has the same job as you, stand on the same floor for as long as you do, or wear the same exact style shoe as you, have foot problems? Of course not! Then why do you and not them? It is because in the great lottery of life, you were born with the tendency to have a Morton’s Toe or some other foot problem. Of course, if you knowingly wear shoes that are wrong for your feet, they will hurt. In regard to shoes, don’t forget that famous age old saying, “You cannot fit a salami into a hot dog bun.”
Patients ask me all the time, “Dr. Schuler, what can I do to prevent my foot problems?” My answer is simple: “Pick different parents next time, when it comes to your feet.”
Most people who inherit the tendency to have foot problems don’t have these problems until they reach middle age. That is when these inherited traits start to take their toll due to the day-in, day-out trauma that has built up over the years.
Dr. Morton explained this in his 1952 book, Human Locomotion and Body Form. He stated that the tissues of the youthful foot have more elasticity than those of the older foot, and because of that, most foot problems do not appear until after thirty years of age. Morton went on to say that external events like prolonged periods of standing or abusive use due to high heels, do not affect the foot in our youth.
Dr. Dudley J. Morton, the Father of the Morton’s Toe
In the first half of the twentieth century, the most famous doctor in the United States, regarding problems of the human foot, was Dudley J. Morton, M.D. During that, time such publications as Readers Digest, Time Magazine. The New York Times regularly quoted and cited him. He was repeatedly written about in dozens of newspapers around the country, His medical books and articles on the foot were the leading authorities of their time. Aside from being a renowned authority of the foot, Morton was also an orthopedic surgeon, anatomist, evolutionist, teacher, anthropologist, author, musician, painter and inventor. He was born on March 27, 1884 in Baltimore, Maryland, on his family’s farm. In 1907, Morton graduated from Hahemann Medical College in Pennsylvania. During World War I, he went to France and served as a surgeon with the famous American Ambulance of Paris.
When he returned from the war, Dr. Morton became a research associate at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, where he served as an anatomist. While at the museum, he concerned himself with the evolutionary development of the human foot. This is where he started to establish his reputation. His numerous papers and studies in the early and mid-1920s revolved around his study of primates (monkeys). This laid the groundwork for his most important work pertaining to the human foot, which took place in the late 1920’s.
Besides his scientific publication, in 1924, he found the time to write and publish a delightful children’s book called “Grampa’s Toy Shop ” This delightful, highly imaginary Christmas story shows how diverse and creative Dr. Morton truly was.
Two Important Papers
Between 1924 and 1928, Morton was on the faculty of the Yale University School of Medicine, where he was an assistant professor in the Department of Surgery. While at Yale, he published the two papers that would present, for the first time, what Morton’s Toe was. In 1927, he published a paper in the prestigious Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery titled “Metatarus Atavicu: The Identification of a Distinctive Type of Foot Disorder“.This scientific paper was the first time Morton presented his theory of the short first metatarsal bone and its harmful effects it could cause on the foot. The following year, in 1928, Morton published another paper in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. This paper described, for the first time, another condition of the first metatarsal bone known as “Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone”. This condition, and the short first metatarsal bone, is one of the two problems, that for our purposes, we consider to be the Morton’s Toe. Dr. Morton never referred to these two problems as a Morton’s Toe. This is the term that was given to these problems over a period of years by the medical profession.
If the 1920s was Morton’s decade of writing scientific articles, the 1930 through 1950s was his era of writing books both for the medical community and the general public. During those years, he wrote seven books. As before, these books were about evolution, anatomy and the human foot.
The Human Foot
The most important of these books was his 1935’s The Human Foot. It was written as a textbook for the medical community. The basis of the book came directly from his 1927 and 1928 papers written for the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery in conjunction with his years of research as an anatomist, anthropologist, and an evolutionist. His years of work at the American Museum of National History, Yale, and Columbia were also reflected in the book. In The Human Foot, Morton laid out, step-by-step, via evolution and inheritances, why we have foot problems and what to do about them. It quickly became a medical classical, becoming the leading text of it time concerning the human foot. He explains (as noted previously) that the two major causes of foot problems were the short first metatarsal bone and hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone. In spite of the fact that over seventy years have passed since it publications the material Morton presented in The Human Foot is still true. Not only to those suffering with foot problems, but, as you will see, for those who also suffer with pains throughout their bodies. By the time that book was published, Morton was the leading authority of the foot in the medical world. Concerning fallen arches and flat feet he wrote in the Human Foot the following:
“Laxity of the plantar ligaments of this segment affects both the longitudinal arch, by impairing the stability of the foot as a base of support, and the fore part of the foot, by causing an improper distribution of weight upon the metatarsal bones.
Oh Doctor, My Feet!
If The Human Foot made Morton famous in the medical profession, it was his 1939 book,Oh Doctor, My Feet! written for the average person, that made him a household name. After the release of Oh Doctor, My Feet! there was no question that Dr. Dudley J. Morton was considered by both the public and the medical community as the leading authority in this country regarding foot pain. In that book, Morton explained to the average person why their feet really hurt, and what to do about it. The book was so celebrated that Reader’s Digest asked Dr. Morton to write an article about the book, in their April 1939 issue. In the first paragraph of the Reader’s Digest article, Morton wrote:
“Aching, pain galled feet are among the commonest afflictions besetting mankind. Seven of ten persons suffer from foot alignment of varying severity ranging from the nagging discomfort of corns to total disability from broken down feet”
Morton went on to say that then, as now, millions of dollars are spent annually on corrective shoes or other devices that are of questionable benefit in healing the foot. As always, he stated the two principal reasons for foot problems are the short first metatarsal bone and or the hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone. He continued to explain how to treat these conditions by putting a pad or a platform under the first metatarsal bone.
The book was also written about in the New Yorker Magazine and was reviewed in dozens of newspapers across the country, from the New York Times to the Oakland Tribune. At about the same time, The American Medical Association also published an article for physicians that were written by Morton based on Oh Doctor, My Feet!
Human Locomotion and Body Form: A Study of Gravity and Man
In 1952, with Dudley Dean Fuller, a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering and Dr. Morton wrote his last book called Human Locomotion and Body Form: A Study of Gravity and Man. The book reflected Dr. Morton’s thirty-plus years of work on evolution that supported his belief that the only way humans could eventually stand erect and walk was because of inheritance over millions of years. There were of course, chapters on the short first metatarsal bone and hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone. It was well received and was republished over seas by an English publishing house.
Throw them Out!
In January 1942, Dr. Morton presented a paper at the Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons in Atlantic City. According to the New York Times, Morton made quite a sensation when he stated, “that 90% of arch supports that prop up thousands of feet ought to be thrown out the window”. And, that the term “weak arches” should disappear in any discussion about the feet. Morton went on to say that, other than high heels, shoes are not normally responsible for most foot problems. He also said that fallen arches are not the cause of most foot problems; but the real problem is due to poorly distributed weight across the five metatarsal bones (i.e. Morton’s Toe ) Time Magazine, in their January 26, 1942 issue, also reported about Morton’s at this meeting.
From 1928 on, Morton was an associate professor of anatomy, at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University in New York. He not only taught and did research at Columbia, he also was on staff at Columbia Presbertyrian Hospital, where he treated patients. He stayed at Columbia for sixteen years until he resigned on June 30, 1944.
In December 1949, the Reader’s Digest again published another article about Dr. Dudley J. Morton. This time it was a highly enthusiastic profile about him entitled “Something Wrong with Your Feet.” Paul de Kruif, who was a very famous author in his own right, wrote the piece. De Kruif was most noted for his book, Microbe Hunters that first published in 1926, and which is still in print today. De Kruif, who was a patient of Morton’s, testified that arch supports failed him, while Morton’s simple Toe Pad worked. He relates the story of how Morton discovered the importance of the short first metatarsal bone while looking at hundreds of x-rays, and how he developed the treatment for Morton’s Toe. He then goes on to say how, Morton received the scientific recognition he deserved, not only in the U.S. but overseas as well. De Kruif concluded The Reader Digest article by saying with admiration:
“Thus thanks largely to Dr. Morton’s pioneer work, one of the most common of foot defects need no longer cause widespread suffering”.
The Final Years
Morton’s grandchildren Janice, Sandy and Chris, (who are now in their fifties and sixties,) have nothing but fond memories of their grandfather. At Thanksgiving, he insisted on carving the turkey at the family gathering. Like many men of his time, Dr. Morton was a chain smoker. His grandson, Chris, clearly recalls watching ball games on TV with his grandfather, as Dr. Morton lit one cigarette after another. Unfortunately, it was this chain smoking that finally led to his death from cancer in May 1960 at the age of seventy-six.
History of the Morton’s Toe
Thru out history the long 2nd toe was referred as a “Roman Or Greek Foot”. Before Dr. Morton ever wrote about the long 2nd toe in the 1920’s it was written about for some time in various places. One of the most interesting of these publications is the U. S. National Park Service pamphlet about the Statute of Liberty, called The Statue of Liberty’s toes – or why she may wear sandals . In it, the history of the Roman and Greek foot, and the Morton’s Toe is given in regard to the feet of the Statue of Liberty. Fredric Bartholdi the sculptor was influenced by his classical training and gave the Statue of Liberty the Roman/Greek Foot.
The Toe Pad: the treatment for Morton’s Toe
The basic, simple treatment for Morton’s Toe and most of the problems associated with it, such as back pain, knee pain, hip pain, fibromyalgia, arthritis and most foot pains, is with a pad that is applied to the bottom of your first metatarsal bone that we call the “Toe Pad.” It was first written about by Dr. Morton in 1927. He invented it to treat the improperly working short first metatarsal bone. Realizing this device was new, different and literally one of a kind, Morton he applied for a patent on it on June 20, 1927. He called it “Means for Compensating for Foot Abnormalities.” It took almost five years, but on March 1, 1932, Dudley J. Morton was granted U.S. Patent # 1,847,973 for his device. After eighty years, its basic concept is still the best way of treating the problems of the foot and body associated with Morton’s Toe, but now it is much smaller and easier to make.
This is how the Toe Pad should look under the first metatarsal bone. Notice how it goes up and down.
How the Toe Pad Works to Make You Feel Better.
A Morton’s Toe can cause excessive strain on the second metatarsal bone or other parts of your body and foot. It is this strain that can be the real cause of why you can be hurting not only in your foot, but all over your body.
The Toe Pad works by removing this strain, by acting as a platform on the bottom of the first metatarsal bone. This platform allows the first metatarsal bone to meet the ground properly and then forces it to bear weight normally. Once this happens, the abnormal strain that was improperly put on the second metatarsal bone starts to be removed and shifted back to the first metatarsal bone. It is this shifting of the abnormal strain off of the second metatarsal bone, back to the first metatarsal bone where it belongs, that will start to have you feeling better again.
The Toe pad also acts as a platform in the treatment for hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone. But now its job is to remove the slack of the ligaments in and around the bottom of the first metatarsal bone, which is causing excess motion of the bone. By doing this, the toe pad stabilizes and also locks the first metatarsal bone in place. Once the bone is locked in place, it will help control all of the problems not only of the feet, but also throughout the body associated with hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone.
The Toe Pad is a patented, proven medical treatment, that has withstood the test of time. It is not a work in progress. It is not an arch support or a special shoe that costs hundreds of dollars and will not work. It is a simple pad or insole that can be made for about $2.00 -$3.00. In Why You Really Hurt: It All Starts In The Foot, we show you how to make the Toe Pad.THE TOE PAD